Week 6 Discussion Response

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. One of the references must come from Broderick and Blewitt (2015). I need this completed by 01/06/18 at 7pm.  Respond to my colleagues using one or more of the following approaches:
· Validate your colleague’s perspective or provide an alternative perspective by citing specific examples (based on observations or research) that illustrate the identified positive or negative influence.
· Offer another way a colleague might use knowledge of his or her identified influence to effectively work with adolescents and their families.
· Expand on your colleague’s posting by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.
Instructor says to me:
I enjoyed your post and I understand your point of view concerning culture and the impact it has on adolescents. In a household that has multiple cultures how would a counselor help parents articulate combining the different cultures for the best interest of their adolescents? For example, a mom may be Caucasian with a Christian background, and the father is Islamic with a Muslim background. Two completely different races and religions that found love, but their ideas and methods are completely opposite. I look forward to your thought.
(My post was)
Factors influence the development of adolescents
Culture, biology, environment, as well as sexual orientation among others, affect the development of adolescents.  Culture is highly significant in the development of adolescents. Cultural differences determine how the adolescents grow and the kind of behavior they will acquire.  Concerning the environment, the family structure as well other settings including the society influences the behavior of adolescents. The family acts as the prop in their development since it provides an immediate environment. The older siblings and parents are the role models (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).
Adolescence is a time of development when the children are undergoing numerous biological changes. The changes are physically manifested. Physical appearance is central during this stage. Boys acquire masculine features such as coarse voice and broadening of the chest. Girls’ changes include the onset of menstrual cycles as well as the growth of breasts. The physical changes could lead to low self-esteem if the appropriate environment is not provided.
Most significant factor
Culture is the most significant factor influencing adolescent development. One of the primary reasons for this argument is that culture is the way of life and therefore all the environments have a particular way of life. Within the family, there is the kind of culture that already exists. Some families cultivate the culture of dependence while others are more independent. Adolescents who grow in families with dependence culture tend to be more dependent in their lives compared to those that grow in families with independence culture.  Independent household cultures come with high levels of freedom and responsibilities compared to dependent cultures.
Culture also relates to moral standards. Some of the essential moral standards are acquired during teenage. Parents of adolescents must instill morals in their children. In households where there is a culture of inculcating positive values in their children, the children acquire these values and are likely to uphold them in future (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).
Impact on the decisions of adolescents
The influence of culture is positive and profoundly impacts the decisions made by adolescents. For instance, within the family, parents urge their adolescents to uphold honesty and lead by example. Adolescents who have grown in homesteads and societies with this kind of culture will not lie even when there are great benefits of lying. Some cultures such as the in East Asia, families emphasize on harmony as opposed to honesty. The implication is that the adolescents will tell a lie as long as it contributes to family and social harmony.
How a counselor might apply this knowledge
A counselor can apply this knowledge in various ways. Firstly, he or she will help the parents understand the kind of culture their children are growing in and the equivalent expectations. For instance, some children will be more reliant on their families than others depending on the culture in the family and also in the society (Milevsky, Schlechter, Netter, & Keehn, 2007).
Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). “Gender and Peer Relationships: Middle Childhood
Through Early Adolescence. In The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed., pp. 282-323). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Milevsky, A., Schlechter, M., Netter, S., & Keehn, D. (2007). Maternal and Paternal Parenting
Styles in Adolescents: Associations with Self-Esteem, Depression, and Life-Satisfaction.
Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16(1), 39-47. doi:10.1007/s10826-006-9066-5
1. (A. Wit)
Adolescence is an exciting and challenging stage for most people.  During this phase, children will experience rapid physiological change during puberty, moral development, socialization development with other kids and adults, intellectual growth, and greater independence.  Peer relationships can have a profound impact on identity development.  In this post, I will cover the positive and negative implications of peer relationships, cultural factors of socialization, and how counselors can support their adolescent clients.
Peer relationships in adolescence
Positive and negative peer experiences can affect multiple areas of a teen’s life.  The quality of social relationships can influence academic performance, self-esteem, emotional quality, and family relationships.  Typically, adolescents choose friends that have similar traits and interests to themselves (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Peer relationships can positively influence development by encouraging skills such as communication, conflict resolution, problem-solving, cooperative learning, and shared decision making (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Individuals feel a sense of belonging when they are included in the desired peer group and a sense of isolation and rejection when they are not included (Lee, Foote,Wittrock, Xu, Niu, & French, 2017).  When a child is accepted to a peer group, they are deemed popular.  Popular individuals may have stronger cognitive and social problems as well as positive self-concept (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  When a child is not accepted, or rejected by peers, they are not as likely to develop strong social skills (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Rejection by peers is associated with aggressive behavior, impaired self-control, and diminished self-esteem (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Research has found that children with signs of depression often hold a negative view of both themselves and peers, and isolation weakens the ability to understand social structure (Lee, Foote, Wittrock, Xu, Niu, & French, 2017).
Cultural Considerations
An adolescent’s desire to belong to a peer group can be influenced by cultural factors such as gender and ethnicity.  Gender identity and sexual orientation can easily influence acceptance in peer relationships.  Teens who are not cisgender or heterosexual tend to have the most difficulty feeling accepted (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Ethnic differences can be challenging for some.  Children that identify with a racial minority face the additional challenge of acculturation (Crocetti, Rubini, Luyckx, & Meeus, 2008). Cultural values that differ from the majority can be a source of rejection (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Desirable peer qualities may vary depending on the demographics of the community.
Counselors with adolescent clients must understand the client’s peer relationships.  Could depression and low self-esteem be attributed to rejection or isolation?  What are the qualities of the differences between the client and the desired peer group?  Are those differences biological or environmental?  Successful treatment for adolescents must account for the transactional nature of the problems and an understanding of what sustains that difficulty (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  One approach a counselor might take is to evaluate the client’s perspective of peer groups.  Some research shows that adolescents’ perception of peer groups may be influenced by their own attributes (Lee, Foote, Wittrock, Xu, Niu, &French, 2017).  Developing an awareness of identity and perception of others may be helpful.
Peer relations can significantly influence adolescent development.  Positive peer experiences can have benefits that last into adulthood including high self-esteem, communication skills, and shared problem-solving abilities (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Negative peer experiences including rejection and isolation can increase the likelihood of depressive symptoms and aggression in some adolescents.  Counselors of adolescent clients should take time to understand the influence of the client’s peer relationships.  Therapy may include a focus on the perception of peer relationships in correlation to individual cultural attributes.
Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education
Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., Luyckx, K., & Meeus, W, (2008). Identity formation in early and middle adolescents from various ethnic groups: From three dimensions to five statuses. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(8), 983–996.
Lee, S., Foote, J., Wittrock, Z., Xu, S., Niu, L., & French, D.C. (2017). Adolescents’ perception of peer groups: psychological, behavioral, and relational determinants. Social Science Research, 65, 181-194.
2. (H. Men)
Adolescence is the time in our lives that transitions us from childhood into adulthood. The awkwardness in this time period brings about physical changes in which little girls begin to look like grown women, and little boys begin to look like grown men. The changes may include growing breast for girls and facial hair for boys which may bring on feelings of insecurity if a child is not aware of why this change is occurring. The mindset in adolescences begin to take on a form in which they know everything and no adult can tell them differently or adults have no idea what they are experiencing. During the adolescence period two major developments occur which are sex role development and how peer relations are produced and the influence they have in this age group (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).
Most Significant Factor
The household that children are raised in sets the standards for how a child may possibly grow into their adulthood. The more positive and supportive the family tends to be, the more positive a child may become as an adult. The more negative an environment is for a child, the more hardships this child may experience as an adult. The environment outside of the home is just as important, for example the experiences children have at school plays an intricate part in how they perceive themselves and others.  Peer groups that a child becomes involved in teaches them how to communicate, resolve issues, set goals, learning capabilities, and skills for decision making (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). During this period for adolescence experiences which are positive or negative are influenced by the peer groups they choose to be a part of. The group they choose to be a part of definitely has an influence on an adolescence future either in a negative way or positive. If a child chooses to be a part of the math and science crowd because they intellectually stimulate each other, pushing them to learn and strive it may have a positive influence on the child’s future endeavors. However if a child decides to be a part of the get high club, this could impact their future in a negative way. Acceptance is extremely important to adolescences and being popular is the trend that most want to be included in. One study found that when adolescences are part of and accepted by the popular crowd it boosts their self esteem, whereas if you are teased by your friends this is an indication that you are well liked; but if you are ridiculed or made fun of this is an indication that the group is rejecting you (Kilimstra, Hale, Raaijmakers, Branje & Meeus, 2010).
Cultural Considerations
Cultural considerations in adolescences play an intricate part in the development of this peer group. Depending on which part of the world adolescence is raised in may determine what is acceptable behavior and what is not acceptable behavior. Regardless of where you are at in the world, conflicts among peers are inevitable but the way these conflicts are resolved depends on how the society around you handles the conflicts (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). For example in the United States children are encouraged to be individuals, and I can hear my mother saying to me every day before I left for school. “Be a leader and not a follower”. The United States teaches their adolescences to defend their selves with words, learn the art of negotiation, and always be fair (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). In other cultures like in Asia adolescences are expected to resolve any conflict they have should be resolved amongst each other (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). It may be an asset for children to learn how to resolve issues peacefully without the coaching of an adult, because when these same children become adults they have learned how to resolve conflicts without the use of force. In social media which tends to show many adults in physical altercations over the most minor things. It may be due to the fact that they never learned as a child how to resolve their issues and the only way they can resolve them now is by physically fighting. Parents are encourages to also prepare their child with the skills needed in recognizing what they may experience negatively or positively depending on their race or ethnicity. Parents should prepare their children by helping them learn about their culture, values, and the activities within their culture (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Also if their children are the minority helping them understand discrimination from others does not determine who they are as a person (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Finally helping them and encouraging them to foster relationships with other groups will broaden their mindsets into accepting different cultures.
Encouraging parents to send their adolescences to counseling is a benefit that will produce positive results for years to come. Counselors are able to recognize familiar stressors in this age group such as school, family issues, or peer relationships. The majority of adolescences behavior will change during this time period. Sometimes parents will not notice the little changes that have occurred over a certain time, causing them to believe their adolescence changed overnight. The goal in helping this age group should include controlling distress, manage the social and emotional outlets, teach proper ways of communication, and help make family relationships stronger.
Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Klimstra, T. A., Hale, W. W., III, Raaijmakers, Q. A. W., Branje, S. J. T., & Meeus, W. H. J. (2010). Identity formation in adolescence: Change or stability? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(2), 150–162.
3. (B. Smi)
Peer relationships are the most significant factor in influencing adolescent development. While adolescent development is influenced by parental relationships, culture, sexual orientation, sexuality, and environment, I believe peer relationships are most influential due to their affects on behavior.
The Most Significant Factor
Research has implied that peer relationships within childhood significantly impact mental health and social adjustment later in life.  Broderick (2015) imply that peer groups and social networks heavily impact children beginning in middle childhood. Children in this stage are most likely to fall into cliques and crowds. Cliques are described as informal while crowds are based on reputations and formed of  multiple cliques. Peer relationships allow middle childhood and early adolescent children to hone skills in communication, conflict resolution, joint goal setting, cooperative learning, and shared decision-making (Broderick, 2015).
A Positive Influence
While peer relationships can have both positive and negative effects on adolescent development,  I think this influence is positive as it allows for children to work on their social competence, which affects overall mental health. This factor is positive as children improve their social skills. Broderick (2015)  defines good social skills as the use of appropriate language, making eye contact, and asking appropriate questions.  Peer relationships can also determine whether the child follows the “right” path and veers away from drugs and violence or follows a different crowd that encourages it.
Impact on Adolescent Decisions
Rejected children typically exhibit aggressive behaviors towards their peers. Broderick (2015) indicates that these children usually display verbal negativity, instrumental aggression, and disruptiveness. Research depicts that children are usually rejected due to their aggression, lack of self-control, and struggles with social interaction. However, research also shows that other rejected children are routinely withdrawn from others. “Rejected-withdrawn children are more socially anxious than other groups and likely to behave in socially inappropriate ways” (Broderick, 2015, pg. 312).
Cultural Effects
In addition to all of the above mentioned information, culture also impacts adolescent development. A significant aspect of culture is socioeconomic status which defines one’s environment. Research depicts that where a person lives has a lasting impact on social development and adjustment (Crocetti, 2008). For example, a child living in extreme poverty will experience more struggles (poor nutrition, possibly poor sleep habits/conditions) than a child from a well off family. Living situations matter most as it reflects on how much attention the child receives at home. Children who struggle with social competence typically have a hectic home life.
How to Apply the Knowledge
Children within the middle childhood and early adolescence range are working their hardest to define their identities and figure out how they fit into society (Crocetti, 2008). During this time, other’s perception of them is the most important and typically defines how they see themselves. Being aware of how much influence peer relationships have on a child’s behaviors in addition to their culture, parental relationships, SES, and environment could assist a counselor in identifying appropriate interventions.
Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., Luyckx, K., & Meeus, W, (2008). Identity formation in early and middle adolescents from various ethnic groups: From three dimensions to five statuses. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(8), 983–996.
· Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
o Chapter 8, “Gender and Peer Relationships: Middle Childhood Through Early Adolescence” (review pp. 282-323)
o Chapter 9, “Physical, Cognitive, and Identity Development in Adolescence” (review pp. 324-367)
Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., Luyckx, K., & Meeus, W, (2008). Identity formation in early and middle adolescents from various ethnic groups: From three dimensions to five statuses. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(8), 983–996.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Klimstra, T. A., Hale, W. W., III, Raaijmakers, Q. A. W., Branje, S. J. T., & Meeus, W. H. J. (2010). Identity formation in adolescence: Change or stability? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(2), 150–162.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
McBride Murry, V., Berkel, C., Gaylord‐Harden, N. K., Copeland‐Linder, N., & Nation, M. (2011). Neighborhood poverty and adolescent development. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 114–128.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
McLean, K. C., & Breen, A. V. (2009). Processes and content of narrative identity development in adolescence: Gender and well-being. Developmental Psychology, 45(3),702–710.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Milevsky, A., Schlechter, M., Netter, S., & Keehn, D. (2007). Maternal and paternal parenting styles in adolescents: Associations with self-esteem, depression and life satisfaction. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16(1), 39–47.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
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