Abstract

Purpose: This paper will give you a preview of the type of research article you will be writing for Research Methods and Design II. You will get one more chance to test your understanding of APA formatting by identifying formatting mistakes. You will also get another chance at summarizing research by creating your own abstract for the paper you will read.

Task Part 1: You will review a paper written by a prior Research Methods and Design II student. The study you will read about has two parts; both parts are important. As you do identify the hypotheses, IVs, and DVs, and ultimately write an abstract for the research article. It may be tougher than you expect so give yourself time to go through the article and label its parts.

For the abstract:

A complete abstract will contain all of the following:

  1. Describe the purpose of the study
  2. Describe the variables (IVs and DVs)
  3. Describe the methods
  4. Describe the results
  5. Describe the implications of the study
  6. Should be no longer than 150 to 200 words
  7. Should include both study 1 and study 2
  8. Concept keywords related to article after the abstract

    Running head: COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 1

    The Influence of Color Priming and Forewarning on Anagram Performance

    A. Student

    Florida International University

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 2

    Abstract

    Methods One Students: Typically, authors add their abstract for the paper here on the second

    page. As you can see, the abstract for this paper is missing. Your job is to supply that abstract!

    Read over the following paper, which is an actual paper turned in by a former student taking

    Research Methods and Design II at FIU. This is similar to a paper you will write next semester.

    Review the studies in this paper, and spot the hypotheses, independent and dependent variables,

    participants, results, and implications, and write it up in one paragraph (no more than 200 words

    maximum). Make sure to include keywords as well (keywords are words or short phrases that

    researchers use when searching through online databases like PsycInfo – they need to be

    descriptive of the paper, so come up with three or four that seem to suit this paper). Good luck!

    Keywords: Methods II Paper, Abstract Assignment, Methods II Preview

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 3

    The Influence of Color Priming and Forewarning on Anagram Performance

    Colors are an essential part of life, from warning us of poisonous creatures to describing

    our emotions, they have proven their worth. Certain colors can be perceived in specific situations

    or attributed to a particular emotion. For instance, priming of sadness can lead to perception of

    the color blue, whereas priming of anger can lead to perception of the color red (Fetterman,

    Robinson, Gordon, & Elliot, 2011). The central aim of our study is to explore the effect priming

    with a specific color has on anagram performance.

    Priming is defined as the unconscious influence that a stimulus has on the agility or

    accuracy in performing a task (Schacter & Rajendra, 2001). According to Jefferis and Fazio

    (2008), priming impacts behaviors by informing the person if they have met the demands of the

    situation. The influence priming has on behavior is shaped by what one perceives in a particular

    situation. For example, priming the color red in the context of romantic attraction would have a

    different response than priming the color red in an achievement situation, situations in which

    there is a possibility for success or failure and competence is measured (Elliot, Maier, Binser,

    Friedman, & Pekrun, 2009). In the context of romantic attraction, the color red unconsciously

    increases perceived attractiveness of another person (Elliot & Niesta, 2008). With regards to

    achievement, the color red elicits avoidance behavior due to its association with factors such as

    the red in alarms that suggest danger (Elliot, Maier, Moller, Friedman, & Meinhardt, 2007; Elliot

    et al., 2009).

    To study the influence that red has on achievement, Elliot et al. (2007) designed a study

    that involved color priming and used anagram performance as a representation of achievement.

    In one of the experiments conducted, the colors red, green, and black were used to test anagram

    performance. Participants were assigned to the color conditions (red, green, or black) through the

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 4

    process of random assignment. First participants were given a practice test and later they were

    given the real anagram test. Before completing the real anagram test, participants were told to

    check that all of the pages contained their participant number. The numbers were written in red,

    green, or black ink at the top of every page of the test. Results showed that exposure to red,

    compared to green or black, on achievement tasks impaired performance.

    In accordance with the idea that color affects performance, Steele (2014) recreated a

    study that hypothesized that words associated with avoidance were solved faster on a red

    background and words associated with approaching were solved faster on a blue background.

    Participants were asked to complete an anagram task in which instructions for the task were

    written in black letters on a white, red, or blue background. The words were linked to activating

    either approach, avoidance, or neutral motivation. The findings opposed those of the previous

    study that Steele (2004) replicated. The previous study reported that a red background would

    result in faster solution of avoidance words and that a blue background would result in faster

    solution of approach words. Steele’s study found that words classified as avoidance were solved

    slower on the red background compared to approach and neutral words. Similarly, words

    classified as approach were solved slower on the blue background. An implication as to why the

    result of the replicated study were contradictory to those of the original study suggested that

    words classified as avoidance, approach, or neutral were actually classified in the wrong group.

    Study One

    To further explore the impact that color priming has on anagram performance, we

    designed a study in similar fashion to Elliot et al. (2007), in which participants completed an

    anagram task after priming for a specific color. Each participant was given an identical anagram

    task to complete but with instructions for the anagram task written in red, green, or black ink. We

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 5

    predicted that participants given red ink will perform worse on the anagram task than those given

    green or black ink instructions. That is, red ink participants will correctly unscramble fewer

    words than participants given both green ink and black ink, whom we do not expect will differ in

    their anagram performance. We also predicted that participants given red ink (compared to green

    or black ink) will find the anagram task more challenging for themselves and others and will find

    it more frustrating. They will also think that they will perform worse on the task when given red

    ink. However, we predicted that all participants, regardless of ink color, will believe that the ink

    color did not affect them.

    Methods

    Participants

    There were 115 participants in our study. Of these, 55 were male (47.8%) and 60 were

    female (52.2%). The age of the sample ranged from 12 to 69 (M = 26.22, SD = 9.63). This

    included 19.1% Caucasian (N = 22), 59.1% Hispanic (N = 68), 6.1% Native American (N = 7),

    5.2% African American (N = 6), 4.3% Asian (N = 5), and 6.1% of participants reporting “other”

    (N = 7).

    Materials and Procedure

    Potential participants were randomly approached and informed of the possible risks and

    benefits of participating in the study. If the potential participant verbally agreed to take part in

    the study, he or she was presented with one of three anagram questionnaires. The questionnaires

    contained instructions written in red, green, or black ink; this color manipulation was our

    independent variable. Each of the anagram questionnaires consisted of three identical parts and

    only differentiated in the color with which the instructions were written.

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 6

    In the first part of the questionnaire, the participants were given a timed anagram task to

    complete. Without hinting to the color manipulation, participants were reminded to read the

    questionnaire instructions carefully and to inform the researcher when they were ready to begin

    so that the researcher could start the timer. The anagram task consisted of 20 scrambled words

    that the participants had to unscramble by using all of the original letters to form a new word.

    For example, BMTUH had to be correctly unscrambled to spell out the word THUMB. The

    participants were given three minutes to unscramble as many words as they could and were

    notified when they had one minute left to finish the task. After the three minutes, participants

    were told to stop and to move on to the next part of the questionnaire.

    Part two of the questionnaire consisted of six questions about the anagram task that the

    participants completed. These six questions were part of our dependent variables. In the first four

    questions the participants recorded their response on a scale of one to nine. In these questions the

    participant recorded how challenging the task was for them (1 = not at all challenging, 9 =

    extremely challenging), how challenging they thought other participants found the task (1 = not

    at all challenging, 9 = extremely challenging), how frustrating they found the task (1 = not at all

    frustrating, 9 = very frustrating), and how they thought they did on the anagram task (1 = very

    poorly, 9 = very well). The fifth question gave us insight as to whether the participants did or did

    not pay attention to the study manipulation. This fifth question asked the participants to recall the

    color of the ink used for the instructions (red, green, black, or blue). The last question asked the

    participants the extent to which the color ink on the instructions influenced their performance on

    the anagram task (1 = decreased my number correct, 9 = increased my number correct).

    Part three of the questionnaire asked for the participants’ demographic information. The

    participants were asked about their gender, age, race/ ethnicity, whether or not English was their

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 7

    first language, if they were a student at Florida International University, and if they were

    colorblind. Participants were informed that they were free to leave blank any of the questions

    they did not wish to answer in this section. At the end of the study, the participants were

    debriefed on the study conditions and hypothesis and were given the answer key to the correct

    unscrambled word for the anagram task. Once the study was completed and the participants

    debriefed, we used the answer key to determine the number of correct anagrams the participant

    solved. Participants were given one point for each anagram they correctly unscrambled so that

    the scores would range from zero to twenty.

    Our study consisted of seven dependent variables; however, the main dependent variable

    of our study is the number of correct anagrams the participants solved. We predicted that

    participants given red ink will perform worse on the anagram task than those given green or

    black ink instructions. We also predicted that all participants, regardless of ink color, will believe

    that the ink color did not affect them.

    Results

    A chi-square test was done to determine if participants correctly recalled the color of the

    ink used in the instructions. Using color manipulation (red, green, or black) as our independent

    variable and the color ink participants recalled seeing as the dependent variable, we saw a

    significant effect, X2(6) = 153.38, p < .001. Participants in the red condition recalled seeing red

    (87.2%); participants in the green condition recalled seeing green (84.6%); and participants in

    the black condition recalled seeing black (83.8%). Phi showed a large effect. This indicated that

    participants were cognizant of our manipulation (the color of the instructions).

    To evaluate our main dependent variable, we ran a One-Way ANOVA with color

    manipulation (Red v. Green v. Black) as our independent variable and the number of anagrams

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 8

    participants correctly solved as our dependent variable. The ANOVA was significant, F(2, 112)

    = 7.20, p < .05. In order to investigate differences in the means, we ran a Tukey LSD post hoc

    test. This showed that participants solved fewer anagrams in the red condition (M = 4.87, SD =

    1.34) than in both the green (M = 5.72, SD = 1.16) and black (M = 6.10, SD = 1.81) conditions.

    The green and black groups, however, did not differ from each other. This supported our

    hypothesis that participants given instructions in red ink would perform worse on the anagram

    task than participants who were given instructions in green or black ink.

    Another dependent variable we were interested in was whether or not participants

    believed that the color of ink used in the instructions affected the number of anagrams they

    correctly solved. To evaluate this, we ran a One-Way ANOVA with color manipulation (Red v.

    Green v. Black) as our independent variable and participant belief of color influence as our

    dependent variable. The ANOVA was not significant, F(2, 112) = 1.54, p > .05. This supported

    our hypothesis that, regardless of ink color, participants would believe the color ink used in the

    instructions did not affect them. In this situation, participants in the red condition (M = 3.18, SD

    = 1.59), the green condition (M = 3.10, SD = 1.41), and the black condition (M = 2.65, SD =

    1.23) did not differ from one another. Given the fact that the p-value for the ANOVA test was

    not significant, we did not need to run a post hoc test.

    Discussion

    We predicted that instructions written in red ink will impair participant performance on

    an anagram task as opposed to instructions written in green or black ink. That is, participants

    given instructions written in red ink will correctly unscramble fewer words than participants

    given instructions written in green ink or black ink, whom we did not expect to differ in their

    anagram performance. We also predicted that all participants, regardless of ink color, would

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 9

    believe that the ink color did not affect them. Results supported both of our hypotheses.

    Participants in our red condition solved fewer anagrams than those in the green and black

    condition, whose performance did not differ. Also participants did not believe that ink color had

    any effect on their anagram performance. If participants who were given instructions in red ink

    were unaware of the influence the color red had on their performance, what would happen if

    participants were forewarned about the influence of color on performance? Would participants

    given instructions in red ink perform much worse while participants given black ink instructions

    perform much better in the anagram task? Would there be no change in performance? Will we

    see other changes? We will explore the influence of forewarning on our second study.

    Study Two

    As social creatures, humans are constantly influencing and being influenced by the

    environment. For example, color has the ability to affect people’s behavioral responses.

    However, people may be unaware of these influences on their opinions, behaviors, and actions.

    Would forewarning of these influences change the ways in which people otherwise react in a

    particular situation? The central aim of our second study is to examine the impact that

    forewarning has on performance. Specifically, we want to examine the impact that forewarning

    on the negative effects of the color red has on anagram performance.

    A study conducted by Petty and Cacioppo (1977), examined the effects that forewarning

    about the content of a message had on resisting persuasion. In one if their experiments,

    researchers wanted to see if participants who were forewarned about the content of a message

    produced counterarguments because they were motivated to do so. Sixty introduction to

    psychology students were randomly assigned to the study conditions: warning and instructed to

    write topic thoughts, no warning and instructed to write topic thoughts, warning and instructed to

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 10

    write actual thoughts, no warning and instructed to write actual thoughts. Students were told that

    a psychologist from the counseling center was going to speak to them. Before the psychologist

    gave his speech, they were given a questionnaire to complete. Participants in the warning

    condition read that the psychologist will be talking about why all freshmen and sophomores

    should be required to live on campus (a topic in which the students’ opinions differed from those

    of the speaker). Participants in the no warning condition read that the psychologist will be talking

    about conclusions he generated in his time working at the counseling center. After a silent three

    minutes, participants were asked to move on to the next part of the questionnaire. The next part

    asked participants in the actual thoughts condition to record all the thoughts they had during the

    last three minutes. Participants in the topic thought condition were asked to record their thoughts

    on the matter of freshmen and sophomores being required to live on campus. Afterwards, the

    psychologist gave his speech on why freshmen and sophomores should be required to live on

    campus. Results showed that participants in the warned condition and the no warning but

    instructed to write topic thoughts condition had more resistance to persuasion because thinking

    about the topic allowed them to come up with counterarguments.

    Leon, Rotunda, Sutton, and Schlossman (2003), studied the influence of online

    forewarning on ratings of attraction. Participants were randomly assigned to the forewarning

    group or the no forewarning group. All of the participants used a computer to go to the web page

    that contained a general statement about the Internet. Participants in the forewarning condition

    additionally received information about the use of deception in the Internet. The next part of the

    study consisted of navigating through four web pages that contained photographs of a person of

    the opposite sex. The participant then rated the attractiveness of each photo and answered

    questions about the likeliness of interacting with the person whose photo they saw. Results

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 11

    showed that participants forewarned about the use of deception on the Internet perceived the

    photo shown as less attractive than those who were not forewarned about the use of deception.

    They were also less likely to express the desire of further interaction with the person through

    engaging in online chats. These results were consistent with those of Petty and Cacioppo (1977)

    in the idea that when forewarned of persuasiveness, people will become more resistant to that

    persuasion. In this case, participants became more resistant to deception. In the case of our

    second study, we predict that participants forewarned about the influence of red on anagram

    performance will perform better than those who were not forewarned due to participants

    developing resistance.

    Weber and Bizer (2006), studied the effects that forewarning about exam difficulty had

    on test performance. The researchers hypothesized that forewarning of test difficulty would

    boost performance in students with low anxiety but decrease performance in students with high

    anxiety. Before random assignment into one of the three experimental conditions, researchers

    measured the level of dispositional anxiety each participant had by having them complete a trait-

    anxiety questionnaire. Participants were randomly assigned to: the forewarned condition in

    which they were told that the test was difficult, the forewarned condition in which they were told

    that the test would be easy, or the no forewarning condition. Then participants were told that they

    would be completing a version of a previous GRE and that this test should be taken seriously.

    Results showed that students with low trait anxiety performed better when forewarned about the

    test being difficult as opposed to easy. Students with high trait anxiety performed worse when

    forewarned that the test would be difficult as opposed to easy.

    To expand further research on the topic of forewarning, we have devised a study that

    looks at the effect that forewarning of the color red has on anagram performance. Participants

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 12

    were randomly assigned to a forewarning or a no forewarning condition. In the no forewarning

    condition participants were given an anagram task with instructions written in either red or black

    ink. In the forewarning condition participants were informed about the effect that the color red

    has on performance before given an anagram task with instruction written in either red or black

    ink.

    In accordance with study one, we predicted that participants who were given red ink

    instructions will solve fewer anagrams than those given black ink. We also predicted that those

    given a warning about ink color and anagram performance will perform better on the anagram

    task as compared to those who were not forewarned. We predicted that frustration will impact

    participants’ performance. Specifically, we predicted that those in the black ink condition

    regardless of warning will find the anagram task less frustrating than those in the red ink

    condition. Those in the red ink condition who were forewarned will find the task less frustrating

    than those who were not forewarned. We expected no difference in the level of frustration of

    those in the black ink condition who received a warning. We predicted that when asked how

    frustrating they thought other participants found the task, there will be no difference in the red

    ink and black ink conditions. We also predicted that those in the red ink condition would feel

    they would have performed better if they were not forewarned vs. those in the black ink

    condition who would feel forewarning would not have made a difference in their performance.

    Methods

    Participants

    There were 227 participants in study two. Of these, 82 were male (37.1%) and 139 were

    female (62.9%). The age of the sample ranged from 15 to 63 (M = 23.51, SD = 7.58). This

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 13

    included 14.4% Caucasian (N = 32), 68.5% Hispanic (N = 152), 9.0% African American (N =

    20), 1.4% Asian (N = 3), and 6.8% of participants reporting “other” (N = 15).

    Materials and Procedure

    Potential participants were asked to partake in an online study with the benefit of aiding

    the completion of our research. If the potential participant agreed to take part in the study, he or

    she was given the link of the online survey created through Qualtrics, a survey software. Before

    starting the survey, the participants were presented with an online consent form that informed

    them of the possible risks and benefits of participating in the study, and had to indicate their

    agreement by clicking the “I choose to participate” button in order to continue with the study.

    Our study two was composed of four parts and used the same color manipulation as in study one,

    but instead of three conditions we used two conditions (red ink and black ink).

    In the first part of the study, participants were randomly assigned to one of four

    conditions: forewarning red, forewarning black, no forewarning red, no forewarning black. In the

    forewarning red condition, participants were forewarned about the color red and then given

    instructions written in red ink. In the forewarning black condition, participants were forewarned

    about the color red and then given instructions written in black ink. In the no forewarning red

    condition, participants were not forewarned about the color red and received instructions written

    in red ink. In the no forewarning black condition, participants were not forewarned about the

    color red and received instructions written in black ink. Participants in the forewarning condition

    were given a statement that read “The color red may carry the meaning of failure and avoidance

    in achievement contexts. It may unconsciously affect levels of frustration and anxiety, which in

    turn leads to poor performance levels. Prior research suggests that participants whom are given

    instructions in red may experience higher levels of frustration and solve fewer anagrams than

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 14

    participants given instructions in black”. All participants received anagram tests with identical

    parts and only differentiated in the color of the instructions (red ink or black ink).

    Resembling study one, the second part of the study exposed participants to the

    instructions of the anagram test which were written in either red ink or black ink. Once the

    participants read the instructions they had to click the “continue” button to begin the anagram

    test. The test used different anagrams from those of study one. The anagram test consisted of 20

    scrambled words and the participant had to unscramble as many as they could in three minutes.

    A timer on the computer screen indicated when the three minutes had passed. After the three

    minutes, participants were able to view the answers to the anagram test and calculate their score.

    One point was given for each right answer.

    In the third part of the study, participants were presented with seven questions about the

    anagram task they completed. These seven questions were part of our dependent variables. The

    first question asked the participants to record how many anagrams they correctly solved. The

    second question gave us insight as to whether the participants were attentive to the color

    manipulation. This second question asked the participants to recall the color of the ink used for

    the instructions (black, red, green, or blue). On the last five questions the participants recorded

    their responses on a scale of one to nine. In these questions participants recorded how

    challenging the task was for them (1 = not at all challenging, 9 = very challenging), how

    frustrating they found the task (1 = not at all frustrating, 9 = very frustrating), if they thought

    forewarning of the effects of the color red on performance would cause someone to perform

    better or worse than someone not warned (1 = worse than someone not warned, 9 = better than

    someone not warned), to what extent the color ink on the instructions influenced their

    performance (1 = decreased my number correct, 9 = increased my number correct), and to what

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 15

    extent did being forewarned influence their performance (1 = decreased my number correct, 9 =

    increased my number correct).

    The fourth part of our study asked for the participants’ demographic information. These

    questions asked for their gender, age, ethnicity, if English was their first language, if they were a

    student at Florida International University, and if they were colorblind. After completing the

    study, the participants were debriefed on the study conditions and hypothesis.

    Our study two consisted of seven dependent variables; however, our main interest was

    the number of anagrams participants correctly solved. Another dependent variable we analyzed

    was the extent participants thought that being forewarned influenced their performance. We also

    analyzed the interaction between ink color and forewarning.

    Results

    A manipulation check using color manipulation (red or black ink) as the independent

    variable and the color ink participants recalled seeing as the dependent variable was significant,

    χ2 (1) = 31.62, p < .001. Most participants in the red ink condition correctly recalled that the

    instructions were written in red (65%) while most participants in the black in condition correctly

    recalled that the instructions were written in black (67.7%). Phi showed a medium effect. This

    indicated that participants were cognizant of the ink color in the instructions (See Appendix A).

    To evaluate our main dependent variable, we ran a 2 X 2 factorial ANOVA with color

    condition (red v. black) and forewarning condition (forewarning v. no forewarning) as our

    independent variables and the number of anagrams participants correctly solved as our dependent

    variable. There was no main effect for forewarning, F(1, 223) = 2.68, p > .05. This indicated that

    there was no difference in the number of anagrams correctly solved in the no forewarning (M =

    8.31, SD = 4.49) versus forewarning (M = 9.13, SD = 4.83) conditions. We found a significant

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 16

    condition effect for the color condition, F(1, 223) = 8.70, p < .05. Participants solved more

    anagrams in the black condition (M = 9.53, SD = 4.87) than the red condition (M = 7.74, SD =

    4.24). We also analyzed the interaction between the independent variables (color condition and

    forewarning condition) and the dependent variable (number of anagrams correct). We found a

    significant interaction effect between color condition and forewarning condition, F(1, 223) =

    8.07, p < .05. First, in the red condition, simple effects showed that participants solved more

    anagrams in the forewarning condition (M = 9.10, SD = 4.40) than the no forewarning condition

    (M = 6.40, SD = 3.64), F(1, 101) = 11.48, p < .05. Second, in the black condition, simple effects

    showed that participants solved a similar number of anagrams in the forewarning (M = 9.16, SD

    = 5.19) and no forewarning (M = 9.89, SD = 4.54) conditions, F(1, 122) = 0.69, p > .05. Third,

    for participants in the no forewarning condition, simple effects tests showed they solved more

    anagrams in the black condition (M = 9.89, SD = 4.54) than the red condition (M = 6.40, SD =

    3.64), F(1, 113) = 19.98, p < .05. Fourth, for participants who were forewarned, simple effect

    tests showed that they solved a similar number of anagrams in the red (M = 9.10, SD = 4.40) and

    black (M = 9.16, SD = 5.19) conditions, F(1, 110) = .005, p > .05 (See Appendix B).

    Another dependent variable we were interested in was the extent participants thought that

    being forewarned influenced the number of anagrams they correctly solved. To evaluate this, we

    ran another 2 X 2 ANOVA with color condition (red v. black) and forewarning condition

    (forewarning v. no forewarning) as our independent variables and participant belief of

    forewarning influence as our dependent variable. There was no main effect for forewarning, F(1,

    220) = 0.03, p > .05. This meant that participants did not think being forewarned influenced the

    number of anagrams they correctly solved. Participants in the forewarning condition (M = 5.05,

    SD = 1.59) did not differ from those in the no forewarning condition (M = 5.04, SD = 1.45).

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 17

    Likewise, there was no main effect for the color condition, F(1, 220) = 0.23, p > .05. Participants

    in the red condition (M = 5.10, SD = 1.62) and participants in the black condition (M = 5.00, SD

    = 1.44) did not think forewarning influenced the number of anagrams they correctly solved.

    Additionally, there was no significant interaction effect of forewarning and color condition F(1,

    220) = 0.94, p > .05. Participants in the forewarning red condition (M = 5.22, SD = 1.53),

    forewarning black condition (M = 4.92, SD = 1.65), no forewarning red condition (M = 4.98, SD

    = 1.73), or no forewarning black condition (M = 5.08, SD = 1.21) did not think that being

    forewarned influenced the number of anagrams they correctly solved (See Appendix C).

    Discussion

    In accordance with study one, we predicted a main effect for the color condition, with

    participants given red ink performing worse on the anagram task than those given black ink. We

    also predicted that those given a warning about ink color and anagram performance would

    perform better on the anagram task compared to those who were not forewarned. Additionally,

    we predicted that those in the red ink condition would feel they would have performed better if

    they were not forewarned vs. those in the black ink condition who would feel forewarning would

    not have made a difference in their performance. Results supported only our first hypothesis.

    Consistent with study one, participants given instructions in red ink solved fewer anagrams than

    those who were given instructions in black ink. Results did not support our hypothesis that

    forewarning alone would increase performance on the anagram task. There was actually no

    difference in the number of anagrams correctly solved in the forewarning and no forewarning

    condition; however, there was an interaction between the forewarning condition and the color

    condition. Participants who were given instructions in red ink and had no forewarning solved

    fewer anagrams than all the other participants. Participants in the black ink and red ink

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 18

    conditions who were forewarned solved a similar number of anagrams. This result may be due to

    participants in the forewarning condition being able to ignore the red ink color. Results did not

    support our last hypothesis that participants in the red ink condition who were forewarned would

    feel they would have performed better if they were not forewarned. All participants, regardless of

    condition, believed that forewarning did not influence the number of anagrams they correctly

    solved.

    General Discussion

    In assessing the effect of color priming on anagram performance, we predicted that

    instructions written in red ink would impair performance. This hypothesis was supported in both

    study one and study two. In both studies participants given instructions written in red ink

    performed much worse than those given instructions in either green or black ink. These findings

    reinforce the conclusion of Elliot et al. (2007) that red impairs performance on achievement tasks

    because it activates avoidance motivation and is associated with the danger of failure. The results

    of study one also revealed that participants were unaware of the effect ink color had on their

    performance. Such findings suggest that when administering or taking part in an achievement

    task one should be cautious as to priming the color red. For example, teachers often administer

    different versions of an exam in an effort to reduce cheating. Such versions of the exam are

    usually color coded. As a result, teachers must take care not to use the color red on such versions

    otherwise students given a version with the color red may perform worse than other students.

    Regarding the effect that forewarning about the negative influence that the color red has

    on performance, we predicted that participants who were forewarned would perform better on

    the anagrams task than those who were not forewarned. By itself, forewarning did not produce

    any effect in the number of anagrams solved in the forewarning and no forewarning conditions.

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 19

    However, participants who were not forewarned and were given instructions in red ink

    performed worse than all other participants, whereas those who were forewarned and received

    instructions in red ink performed equally well as participants who were given instructions in

    black ink. These findings are similar to those of Petty and Cacioppo (1977) and those of Leon,

    Rotunda, Sutton, and Schlossman (2003) in that forewarning of a particular influence may lead

    to resisting that influence. In the case of study two, forewarning of the negative effect of the

    color red may have led participants to ignore the color red while completing the anagram task.

    This resulted in counteracting the negative effect that instructions written in red ink had. Going

    back to the example of administering a test, it may be helpful to inform students of a possible

    effect that color in the test versions may have on their performance and to ask them to ignore the

    color.

    There were several possible limitations to our study. Our study used a small number of

    participants which may have affected the results. Also most of our participants were college

    students. The level of interest and attention that each participant paid to the anagram task as well

    as the honesty of their answers were also possible limitations. Possible problems with the online

    survey may have surfaced, such as answers being marked wrong when they were right. Future

    studies may recruit a larger and more diverse pool of participants. If specifically looking at how

    the color red may impact test performance, it would be wise to use a classroom setting as most

    tests are administered in a classroom full of people. In addition, just as tests are administered to

    people at a certain level of knowledge it may be useful to use anagrams that match the cognitive

    level of the individual. Administering an anagram to a twelve-year-old could have different

    results than administering the same anagram task to a thirty-year-old. Future research may also

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 20

    measure individuals’ anxiety levels before and after the test to see how the color red directly

    influences anxiety and to what extent that influences performance.

    Colors are an essential part of life and may have the potential to influence our thoughts,

    behaviors, and actions in more ways than we think. The present study found that the color red

    unconsciously impaired performance on an anagram test. This is an important finding that

    schools and test administrators should find useful. Students spend the majority of their time in

    school and being administered different tests, it is important to know that the use of red in any

    part of examinations should be avoided as to prevent students performing lower than their

    potential.

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 21

    References

    Elliot, A. J., & Niesta, D., (2008). Romantic red: Red enhances men’s attraction to women.

    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 1150-1164. doi: 10.1037/0022-

    3514.95.5.1150

    Elliot, A. J., Maier, M. A., Binser, M. J., Friedman, R., & Pekrun, R. (2009). The effect of red on

    avoidance behavior in achievement contexts. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,

    35(3), 365-375. doi: 10.1177/0146167208328330

    Elliot, A. J., Maier, M. A., Moller, A. C., Friedman, R., and Meinhardt, J. (2007). Color and

    psychological functioning: The effect of red on performance attainment. Journal of

    Experimental Psychology: General, 136(1), 154-168. doi: 10.1037/0096-3445.136.1.154

    Fetterman, A. K., Robinson, M. D., Gordon, R. D., & Elliot, A. J. (2011). Anger as seeing red:

    Perceptual sources of evidence. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2(3), 311-

    316. doi: 10.1177/1948550610390051

    Jefferis, V. E., & Fazio, R. H. (2008). Accessibility as input: The use of construct accessibility as

    information to guide behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 4(44), 1144-

    1150. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2008.02.002

    Leon, D. T., Rotunda, R. J., Sutton, M. A., & Schlossman, C. (2003). Internet forewarning

    effects on ratings of attraction. Computers in Human Behavior, 19(1), 39-57. doi:

    10.1016/S0747-5632(02)00017-1

    Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1977). Forewarning, Cognitive Responding, and Resistance to

    Persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(9), 645-655. doi:

    10.1037/0022-3514.35.9.645

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 22

    Schacter, D. L., & Rajendra, D. B. (2001). Neuroimaging of priming: New perspectives on

    implicit and explicit memory. Current directions in psychological science, 10(1), 1-4.

    doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.00101

    Steele, K. M. (2014). Failure to replicate the Mehta and Zhu (2009) color-priming effect on

    anagram solution times. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21(3), 771-776. doi:

    10.3758/s13423-013-0548-3

    Weber, C.J., & Bizer, G. Y. (2006). The effects of immediate forewarning of test difficulty on

    test performance. Journal of General Psychology, 133(3), 277-285. doi:

    10.3200/GENP.133.3.277-285

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 23

    Appendix A – Manipulation Check – Recall the color ink used in the instructions

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 24

    Appendix B –Ink color * Forewarning – Number of anagrams correct

    COLOR PRIMING AND FOREWARNING 25

    Appendix C – Ink color * Forewarning – Belief that forewarning influenced performance

    Running head: METHODS II PREVIEW ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS 1

    METHODS II PREVIEW ASSIGNMENT 7

    Methods II Preview Assignment Instructions (Worth 40 Points)

    Emanuele Rizzi

    Florida International University

    Methods II Preview Assignment Instructions

    1). Psychological Purpose

    The psychological purpose behind the Methods II Preview Assignment is to give you a brief preview to the paper you will write in Methods II next semester. Not only do I want you to see what will go into your eventual Methods II research paper, but I also want to make sure that you can write a clear, succinct paragraph for a research study that covers all of the relevant information needed to convey the important parts of a study in a single paragraph (i.e. an Abstract).

    The Abstract is one of the first items readers see. You need to convey a lot of information in this very short paragraph, as the potential reader will decide whether to read your full paper based on the information in the Abstract. There are several elements needed in the Abstract about research studies, including information about: a) the research question(s), b) the participants, c) the experimental methodology, d) the findings, and e) the conclusions / implications. Being able to write a precise yet succinct Abstract takes some effort, so make sure you go through several drafts before settling on your final version. Make sure to include keywords / key phrases as well (keywords are an essential part of articles, as these are the words or phrases that library databases like PsycInfo provide to searchers interested in specific topics. Well, the authors actually recommended these keywords, so include them for this short Abstract Assignment).

    2). APA Formatting Purpose

    This Article Critique assignment should once again assess your ability to follow APA formatting guidelines. Use Chapter 14 in your Smith and Davis textbook for help, and look at the instructions on the next page for guidance with formatting

    3). Writing Purpose

    I want to make sure you can write clearly and specifically, summarizing what might be a 20 page paper in a single paragraph. This assignment serves that purpose.

    Methods II Preview Assignment (Worth 20 Points)

    You will read a paper written by an actual Research Methods and Design II student from a prior semester. This paper includes two studies the student conducted, with Study One introducing the main variables and Study Two offering an extension with replication of Study One. Your job is to read the whole paper and then answer the following.

    You will have a CANVAS quiz to upload your answers

    In Part One, Answer the following (1 point for each question, or 9 points total):

    1. What is the hypothesis for study one? Please give me both the null and alternative hypotheses when you answer this question

    2. What is the independent variable(s) for study one? Make sure you tell me how many IVs there are and how many levels there are for each IV

    3. What is the dependent variable(s) for study one? Note: there are several of these, so focus on the ones the author analyzed.

    4. What did they find in study one? Give the general outcome

    5. What is the hypothesis for study two? Please give me both the null and alternative hypotheses when you answer this question

    6. What is the independent variable(s) for study two? Make sure you tell me how many IVs there are and how many levels there are for each IV

    7. What is the dependent variable(s) for study two? Note: there are several of these, so focus on the ones the author analyzed.

    8. What did they find in study two? Give the general outcome

    9. I want you to review the references and spot the reference(s) that is (are) not in APA format and rewrite it for me according to APA rules. Note: there may be as few as zero and as many as ten incorrect references, so make sure to look at them all!

    In Part Two, write an abstract for the paper! Use the information from Part One to paraphrase the study. The entire paper should be summarized in one short paragraph (150 to 200 word maximum). Note: there are two studies, and you must mention both. Yes, this is tough, but authors often summarize (in the same short abstract) papers that they wrote that may include six or seven different studies!

    Tip: Find the overlap between both studies and discuss both simultaneously. For example, “Both studies looked at X, but study two also examined Y.” Make sure your abstract starts at the top of its own page (it should be all on its own).

    Your abstract submission should include the following (1 point each, or 7 points total):

    Title Page (1 point)

    1. For your title page, follow the same guidelines as your article critique paper. You can include the same title and header as the study you are looking at, but make sure to put YOUR OWN NAME as the author.

    2. Your assignment should be in APA format in all respects (appropriate headers with running head and page numbers; correct references where needed; correct alignment of the headings, subheadings, fonts, spacing, etc.)

    Abstract Page (7 points)

    1. Include the word “Abstract” at the top of your abstract

    2. Identify the general problem or research question (the hypotheses) for both studies.

    3. Note the participants for both studies

    4. Note the IVs and DVs for the studies

    5. Note the findings for both studies

    6. Note the overall conclusions / implications of the two studies

    7. Please include keywords for the study (at least 5 keywords or phrases – these are not included in the total word count)

    Writing Quality (3 points)

    1. Avoid run-on sentences, sentence fragments, spelling errors, and grammar errors.

    2. The writing should be PERFECT here. You will lose a point for each writing error, so proofread, proofread, and proofread some more!

    3. Get a group member to review it for you! Review their abstract!

    Total points possible: 20 points

    Other guidelines for the Abstract Assignment

     

    1. Upload your paper through available assignment CANVAS link

    1. This is an individual assignment, but you can get a group member to review it for you.

    Methods II Preview! Abstract Assignment Checklist

    General Paper Format
    Yes No
    1. Is everything in your paper (including headers, the main body of your mini-literature review, and your references) in 12 point Times New Roman font?
    2. Is everything in your paper double spaced, including references (here I mean the spacing above and below each line, not the spaces following a period)?
    3. Do you have one inch margins on all sides of the paper (one inch from the top of the page, one inch from the bottom, and one inch from each side)
    4. Are the first lines of all paragraphs indented roughly ½ inch?
    5. Are your paragraphs aligned left? (That is, text should be flush left, with lines lining up on the left of the page, but text should NOT line up on the right side of the page – it should look ragged)
    6. Do you need help figuring out how to configure a word document in APA format (inserting headers, page numbers, proper indents, etc.)? If YES, I highly recommend watching this video which walks you through setting up an APA formatted paper! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pbUoNa5tyY
    Title page (This section is identical your Article Critique Paper Title Page)
    Yes No Header
    1. Do you have the phrase “Running head” in your header (with a lower case h)?
    2. Is the rest of your Running head title in ALL CAPS?
    3. Is your Running head in 12 point Times New Roman font?
    4. Do you have a page number (1) that is flush right (also in 12 point Times New Roman font)?
    Title / Name / Institution
    1. Is your title 12 words or less (as recommended by the APA)?
    2. Do all title words with four letters or more start with a capital letter?
    3. Are your name and institution correct?
    4. Are your title, name, and institution elements centered and in 12 point Times New Roman font?
    Part One – Study Components
    Yes No
    1. What is the hypothesis for study one?
    2. What is the independent variable(s) for study one?
    3. What is the dependent variable(s) for study one?
    4. What did they find in study one?
    5. What is the hypothesis for study two?
    6. What is the independent variable(s) for study two?
    7. What is the dependent variable(s) for study two?
    8. What did they find in study two?
    9. Are the references correct? If not, correct them
    Part Two – Abstract
    Yes No Header
    1. Is your header title present and identical to your header title on the title page?
    2. Is your header title in ALL CAPS and 12 point Times New Roman font?
    3. Does your header on this second page omit the phrase “Running head”
    4. Do you have a page number starting on page 2
    Abstract
    0. 1. Is the word Abstract centered at the top of the page?
    0. 2. Does the abstract start on its own page?
    0. Did you identify your problem or research question?
    0. Did you note the study participants?
    0. Did you note the experimental or correlational method?
    0. Did you note the findings?
    0. Did you note the conclusions?
    0. Did you identify the problem or research question?
    0. Is your abstract 150-200 words?
    0. Did you include at least five keywords or key phrases?

    Writing Quality
    Yes No
    1. Is it well written generally?

    Abstract Assignment Grading Rubric (20 points possible)

    Title Page – 1 Point (Must have PERFECT APA formatting!)

    Part One – Answer these questions on CANVAS (1 point each, or 9 points total)

    1. What is the hypothesis for study one? Please give me both the null and alternative hypotheses when you answer this question

    2. What is the independent variable(s) for study one? Make sure you tell me how many IVs there are and how many levels there are for each IV

    3. What is the dependent variable(s) for study one? Note: there are several of these, so focus on the ones the author analyzed.

    4. What did they find in study one? Give the general outcome

    5. What is the hypothesis for study two? Please give me both the null and alternative hypotheses when you answer this question

    6. What is the independent variable(s) for study two? Make sure you tell me how many IVs there are and how many levels there are for each IV

    7. What is the dependent variable(s) for study two? Note: there are several of these, so focus on the ones the author analyzed.

    8. What did they find in study two? Give the general outcome

    9. I want you to review the references and spot the reference(s) that is not in APA format and rewrite it for me according to APA rules. Note: there may be as few as zero and as many as ten incorrect references, so make sure to look at them all!

    Part Two – Abstract (1 point each item, or 7 points total)

    1. Include the word “Abstract” at the top of your abstract

    2. Identify the general problem or research question (the hypotheses) for both studies.

    3. Note the participants for both studies

    4. Note the IVs and DVs for the studies

    5. Note the findings for both studies

    6. Note the overall conclusions / implications of the two studies

    7. Please include keywords for the study (at least 5 keywords or phrases – these are not included in the total word count)

    Writing Quality (3 points)

    Running head:

    METHODS II PREVIEW

    ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS

    1

    Methods II Preview

    Assignment

    Instructions

    (Worth

    4

    0

    Points)

    Emanuele Rizzi

    Florida International University

    Running head: METHODS II PREVIEW ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS 1

    Methods II Preview Assignment Instructions (Worth 40 Points)

    Emanuele Rizzi

    Florida International University

 
Do you need a similar assignment done for you from scratch? We have qualified writers to help you. We assure you an A+ quality paper that is free from plagiarism. Order now for an Amazing Discount!
Use Discount Code "Newclient" for a 15% Discount!

NB: We do not resell papers. Upon ordering, we do an original paper exclusively for you.