APA Final Paper

APA PAPER

8 page paper

Paper needs to be in past tense 

Study: Observe entry door for one hour with no sign to see how many participants press the handicap button as opposed to pulling the handle. Second week place visible sign on door or near handicap button stating the electrical cost, and observe if sign increases behavior of pulling handle. Third week remove sign and observe if behavior has influenced participants to pulling handle.

I have to include my personal articles and my group articles (5 in total) in my introduction.

Goal: To determine whether a sign can influence behavior on utilizing or not utilizing the handicap button. Another way to explain the goal is to see if placing a sign by the door or handicap button will influence change of behavior on how they view the door.

Hypothesis: If a sign is placed next to the handicap button, then the sign will influence participants to physically open the door to save on electrical cost of not utilizing the handicap button.

Participants: visitors, students and faculties

Method:

Randomly choose day to observe the entryway for 3 weeks of the same hour to see how many participants press the handicap button to enter or exit the building between 4:30-5:30 pm. Week 2, a sign was placed above the handicap buttons at the same hour previously chosen on a day also randomly chosen. It was observed for participants whom resort to pressing the handicap button, as opposed to pulling or pushing the door open while measuring the effects the sign had on those observed. Week 3 the sign was removed and observed participants on a random day at the same time chosen previously to see the affects the sign had on behavior. It was predicted the sign would have significant effects on participant options to withhold from utilizing the handicap button. This experiment served its purpose by allowing researchers to observe and measure the impact signage has on behaviors.

 

My professor edited the introduction you did for me. Please add more to the introduction and fix the mistakes he wrote on the side of the paper please. Attached, please find document with blue comment from my professor. 

Paper Needs: 

Abstract- Paragraph

Introduction – Please fix and add to introduction

Method- Completed 

Participants- Paragraph 

Materials- Paragraph

Procedure- Paragraph 

Results- Paragraph- Sign to Behavior results attached 

 

Discussion

Needs to be at least a page or two. 

First piece: discuss and summarize what we found. 

Second piece: put it back into context in terms of what we reviewed a bunch of stuff in the introduction section and now we have actual data and there are some conclusions that we need to make.  (Is it inline with what other people have found in similar studies that we reviewed in the introduction? Is it different? Does it half match it? It needs to be put back into context. Maybe it’s indirect conflict that people found before or another piece of evidence. 

Third piece: LIMITATIONS, if we have a very small sample size, thats limitations. For example: with are project (the sign) after doing our observation, we noticed anecdotally it appears that 90% of people aren’t reading our sign and that’s limitation of our study. The question is did they actually pay to the message while passing? When they evaluate the sign were there intentions wanting to save energy or not? 

Forth piece:  future research is limitations, we would fix those if we were to conduct another experiment. For example, our sign was possible difficult to read at night because it was dark. Next piece of research we would change it. It we were going to conduct another study, we need to state a small outline of another independent variable we would look at and tell the reasoning for doing so.  

Please include some other things that could’ve impacted our study.  

Conclusion: Paragraph 

NEW FILE. DATASET NAME DataSet1 WINDOW=FRONT.

WEIGHT BY frequancy.

CROSSTABS

/TABLES=sign BY button

/FORMAT=AVALUE TABLES

/STATISTICS=CHISQ

/CELLS=COUNT

/COUNT ROUND CELL.

Crosstabs

Notes

Output Created

Comments

Input Active Dataset

Filter

Weight

Split File

N of Rows in Working Data File

Missing Value Handling Definition of Missing

Cases Used

Syntax

Resources Processor Time

Elapsed Time

Dimensions Requested

Cells Available

11-DEC-2019 19:55:07

DataSet1

<none>

frequancy

<none>

6

User-defined missing values are treated as missing.

Statistics for each table are based on all the cases with valid data in the specified range(s) for all variables in each table.

CROSSTABS /TABLES=sign BY button /FORMAT=AVALUE TABLES /STATISTICS=CHISQ /CELLS=COUNT /COUNT ROUND CELL.

00:00:00.02

00:00:00.02

2

524245

[DataSet1]

Page 1

Case Processing Summary

Cases

Valid Missing Total

N Percent N Percent N Percent

sign * button 366 100.0% 0 0.0% 366 100.0%

sign * button Crosstabulation

CountCountCount

button

Totalno yes

sign Absent

Present

Total

186 69 255

75 36 111

261 105 366

CountCount

Chi-Square Tests

Value df

Asymptotic Significance (2-

sided) Exact Sig. (2-

sided) Exact Sig. (1-

sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

Continuity Correctionb

Likelihood Ratio

Fisher’s Exact Test

N of Valid Cases

1.092a 1 .296

.845 1 .358

1.077 1 .299

.316 .179

366

0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 31.84.a.

Computed only for a 2×2 tableb.

Page 2

  • Log
  • Crosstabs
    • Title
    • Notes
    • Active Dataset
    • Case Processing Summary
    • sign * button Crosstabulation
    • Chi-Square TestsTajah Williams Comment by LT: Above your name here, you need to put the title of your paper. Comment by LT: You need to include a running head above—see the Purdue OWL APA site for help.https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/general_format.html

      Albertus Magnus School College

      Professor L. Tronsky

      PY-325-1

      Exp. Meth.& Research Design

      12-2-2019

      Introduction Comment by LT: Rather than putting “Introduction” here, you need to put the title of your paper.

      This is a practical experiment that seeks to determine if people can be influenced by a sign and change their routine behaviors. Buck (2019) conducted a sign-influencing behavior study among concerning gender roles and found out that men are more willing to help a woman who appears to be attractive than women would helpare. Yoder, Hogue, Newman, Metz, and LaVigne et al. (2002) also conducted an experiment on door holding among genders, and it emerged that there was a strong pattern of male holding doors for female during dating and not in real every-day life. This displayed a behavioral subtlety among men because they are sexually attracted to womenthe female. Nettle, Nott, & and Bateson (2012) decided to put a sign up to scare away the ever- increasing bicycle theft in the community. The findings were that it was extremely cheap and simple to put a sign stating that there was a surveillance watching the bicycle thieves even when it was not actually there because it greatly led to the reduced theft of bicycles within the locations. This was a benefit that resulted from the engagement of psychology of the thieves to think that they were being watched when they were not. Comment by LT: Your paper should be doubled spaced. Comment by LT: When you are reviewing previous research, you need to include a bit more detail than you have. You should mention the purpose, participants, very briefly describe the methods, and then present the results/conclusions.

      Ford & Torok (2008) evaluated whether a signage would influence the behavior of the people to use the stairway instead of an elevator. The findings of the authors were that the sign motivating people to use the stairway led to an 18.6% increase in the use of stairway. Larsen (1974) came up withcreated a study of conformity in the Asch experiment to demonstrate the tendency of people to conform to when exposed to social pressure of the unidentified majority. It emerged that people tend to conform to the majority pressure in the society because 64% of the participants conformed to what they deemed a majority pressure. Comment by LT: You need another paragraph that connects the previous research to why you decided to conduct your study (the rationale). Then, you need to (very) briefly provide an overview of your study, and finally, you need to provide your hypothesis (prediction) and why you are expecting those results.

      Method

      Participants Comment by LT: In this section you should summarize where you observed, how many people you observed in total, how many people you observed each day. You also should explain how you decided which people you should and should not observe (for example, when someone else was holding the door for somebody).

      Materials Comment by LT: In this section you need to describe your sign (and include it in your appendix section at the end of your paper) and explain how and why you decided to construct it the way you did. Then, you should explain where you put the signs and why you decided to put them in those particular locations.

      Procedure

      I observed the entry door for more than an hour to see whether people would pull the door or press the handicap button when opening the door. There being no sign, almost everybody pressed the handicap button and waited for the door to electronically open. Only a handful individuals who were in a hurry pulled the door to open. The participants were students, visitors and teachers. During the second week, I placed a sign on the door near the handicap button indicating that it was meant for the handicap persons only and the others should pull the door to open in order to save the cost of electricity. The sign greatly influenced the behavioral change because many participants actually pulled the door handle to open the door instead of using the handicap button. Although there are a few individuals who still used the handicap button, the pulling of the door was about 96% as opposed to the previous results without the sign where only 11% of the participants actually pulled the door to open. After the signage was removed during the third week, most people who had seen the sign there still continued to pull the door handle, except for some visitors who had no idea that such a sign had been there previously. Comment by LT: You need to edit this section. Take out any references to the data (percentages of people who pressed the button) because that information belongs in your Results section.You should summarize these points:What days and hours you decided to observe and whyWho did which observationsWhat the procedure was related to observing the different doors (outside going in, middle going in, inside going out, and middle going out).You have much of the above information, but you need to edit it and organize it into the three subsections (Participants, Materials, and Procedures).

      The experiment thus indicates that people are likely to conform to a sign that is directly presented at the point of action and do what they are told to do. The purpose of the study was to show that a signage improves the behavioral response of people in the society. However, it cannot be clear if people who began pulling the door after the sign really wanted to save the electricity cost or did not just want to be associated with handicap when they are not actually handicapped.

      Method

      Randomly choose day to observe the entryway for 3 weeks of the same hour to see how many participants press the handicap button to enter or exit the building between 4:30-5:30 pm. Week 2, a sign was placed above the handicap buttons at the same hour previously chosen on a day also randomly chosen. It was observed for participants whom resort to pressing the handicap button, as opposed to pulling or pushing the door open while measuring the effects the sign had on those observed. Week 3 the sign was removed and observed participants on a random day at the same time chosen previously to see the affects the sign had on behavior. It was predicted the sign would have significant effects on participant options to withhold from utilizing the handicap button. This experiment served its purpose by allowing researchers to observe and measure the impact signage has on behaviors.

      References

      Buck, J. L. (2019). Beauty is in the eEye of the dDoor oOpener: A Study of Chivalry and Female Attractiveness. University of Central Oklahoma.

      Ford, M. A., & Torok, D. (2008). Motivational signage increases physical activity on a college campus. Journal of American College Health, 57(2), 242-244.

      Larsen, K. S. (1974). Conformity in the Asch experiment. The Jjournal of Ssocial

      Ppsychology, 94(2), 303-304.

      Nettle, D., Nott, K., & Bateson, M. (2012). ‘Cycle thieves, we are watching you’: Impact of a simple signage intervention against bicycle theft. PloS one, 7(12), e51738.

      Yoder, J. D., Hogue, M., Newman, R., Metz, L., & LaVigne, T. (2002). Exploring moderators of gGender dDifferences: Contextual dDifferences in dDoor‐hHoliding bBehavior

      1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(8), 1682-1686.

 
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