Assignment Content Based on the Crew Resource Management

work you have done throughout this course, you are now called on to act as a consultant to apply your knowledge to other industries that have an existing CRM program that would be beneficial to employees and organizations to reduce human error and improve employee efficiency.

Select one agency that employs a CRM program.

Research how this agency employed a CRM program in a similar or different way than was identified in the aviation article from Week 2,

Write a 1,400- to 1,750-word paper in which you provide evidence of how this CRM program was implemented. Include the following in your response:

  • Distinguish between various team concepts as they relate to performance during and after this training program.
  • Explain the difference between leaders and managers, as well as the influence and power they may have on the success of this program.
  • Evaluate at least two theories of leadership and the role that leaders utilizing these theories play in facilitating this program.
  • Analyze the general effects on the organization that may result from this program, referencing the concepts of organizational development and various organizational theories.

APA  references (at least 3) and in-text citations


  • Week 2 essay
  • Chapter 12 Work Groups and Work Teams[;vnd.vst.idref=c12]!/4/2/2/2/4@0:0
  • Chapter 13 Leadership ad Power in Organizations
  • Chapter 14 Organizational Development and Theory[;vnd.vst.idref=c14]!/4/2/2/2/4@0:0
  • (See References in Week 2 essay for textbook author Spector, 2012)

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Job Analysis of a Commercial Airline Pilot

Christine Ledford


November 4, 2019

Dr. Jim Cunningham





Job Analysis of a Commercial Airline Pilot

Human resources is a critical field that is responsible for hiring practices of commercial airline pilots for aviation organizations. Airlines must maintain integrity and are obligated to hire safe and reliable pilots. In order to decrease human error and be proactive to challenges that may arise, human resource departments are responsible for creating adaptive processes and systems (Carter, Daniels, & Zickar, 2013). The focal points of evaluating the validity and reliability of a pilots job analysis is through performance evaluations and psychological testing.

Method Comparison to Justify Method Choice

Job analysis is a method used by employers to inform applicants of the jobs description and attributes (Spector, 2012, p. 75). Methods can indicate specific job duties needed to be performed like knowledge, skills, abilities, and other responsibilities (KSAOs). One way to gather the required information is a method called functional job analysis (FJA). According to Spector (2012), observation and interviewing is used to collect biographical information across multiple dimensions past and current on potential hires using the FJA method (p. 65). This is also useful for comparing individuals to job duties.

Yet, a different job analysis may be of better use to determine if an applicant is right for the job, like a pilot. Commercial airline pilots must meet specific criteria to maintain the safety of air travel creating a challenge for human resource managers (American Psychological Association, 2014). Job component inventory (JCI), which is another method, could shed light on relevant details regarding individual capabilities. This addition can assist hiring managers in making the appropriate candidate selections. Additionally, this can inform job applicants on the KSAOs needed to preform efficiently.

There are five main components of the JCI method which include use of tools and equipment, physical and perceptual requirements, mathematics, communication, and decision-making skills, and responsibility (Spector, 2012, p. 64). Commercial airline pilots have immense pressure and responsibility for air travel. The JCI method would allow human resources to fine tune approaches towards practices of hiring candidates. Using this method would allow human resource to identify individuals that meet the required KSAOs. This is important to maintain integrity, reduce incidents, and protect air travelers.

According to O*NET Online (2019), commercial airline pilots must possess specific skill set and abilities like active listening, critical thinking, control skills, geographical knowledge, and mathematical abilities. Commercial airline pilots must also possess the ability to use computers, operation monitoring expertise and control precision. Pilots must know relative position, direction, and spatial and depth perception.

Psychological Testing Importance in Hiring Practices

Spector (2012) states “Psychological tests can be used to assess ability, interests, knowledge, personality, and skill” (p. 106). This helps human resources understand the mental KSAOs of job candidates. Various psychological test methods according to Spector (2012) are available to organizations to determine mental abilities such as Characteristics, Personality, Emotional Intelligence, Integrity, and Vocational Interest (p. 107-116). Airline companies have to ensure that potential airline pilots are healthy and eligible, physically and mentally, before hiring. In addition to psychological test, psychomotor testing can assess hand-eye coordination which is an ability needed to maneuver an aircraft, even in the event of an emergency.

It is beneficial for commercial airlines human resource practices to continue using psychological testing. An individual is unique as well as the mental attributes which need to meet the job requirements. The ability to problem solve and make decisions can be assessed by using the cognitive ability test. According to Spector (2012), research supports cognitive ability test to be a valid predictor of job performance (p. 111). In the event of an emergency, commercial airline companies need pilots that are cognitively and emotionally prepared to make critical decisions for a safe landing (American Psychological Association, 2014). This example stress the importance of why human resources use psychological testing. It is the utmost responsibility to place a strong pilot within the cockpit with high functioning mental skills and abilities.

An integrity test is beneficial for commercial airlines hiring practices of a potential candidate. According to Spector (2012), “The personality integrity test assesses personality characteristics that have been found to predict counterproductive behavior” (p. 116). This should be avoided because legal and ethical concerns could arise if a candidate displays undesirable behavior.

Legal and Ethical Concerns in Hiring Practices of Commercial Pilots

There are legal and ethical concerns when considering an individual for a commercial pilot position, like discrimination. “The Civil Rights Act of 1964 made it illegal to discriminate against minorities and other groups in employment and other areas of life in U.S. society” (Spector, 2012, p. 157). Companies must balance selection systems to ensure that protected classes, like minorities and women, are equally considered. When selecting candidates for a commercial airlines pilot, it is imperative that laws are being followed to avoid legal and ethical concerns.

Performance Appraisal Methods

According to Spector (2012), “Job performance measures can be classified as either objective or subjective” (p. 101). There are many ways to appraise an employee’s performance and to provide areas of improvement and advancement. The target measurement method provides the supervisor and employee with data regarding promotion or demotion based on the organizations expectations. Furthermore, as mentioned by Spector (2012), graphic rating forms and behavior-focused rating forms scores individuals on quality and quantity of performance by checking off dimensions (p. 87). Based on the organization expectations, characteristics and traits are rated on a scale from one to ten. The information provided to commercial airline organizations will help focus training techniques so task are performed with optimal efficiency. According to Carter, Daniels, and Zickar (2013), combining multiple appraisals methods is appropriate evaluating employees where many factor are considered. Commercial airline pilots require consistent evaluations of KSAOs for integrity and compliance of aviation practices.


Commercial aviation strives to maintain safety records which are attributed to a multitude of methods used to hire commercial pilots (American Psychological Association, 2014). Job analysis methods for hiring practices of commercial airline pilots are vital to maintaining this record and success of the organization; including passenger safety. There are various options of psychological testing that are available for hiring practices. Additionally, to avoid issues and adhere to the law, organizations must acknowledge the legal and ethical concerns before hiring (Carter, Daniels, & Zickar, 2013). Human resources must pay attention to detail when using appraisal methods and identify unique KSOAs. Doing so will benefit the company, health of pilots, and customers.


American Psychological Association. (2014). Making air travel safer through crew resource management. Retrieved from

Carter, N. T., Daniels, M. A., & Zickar, M. J. (2013). Projective testing: Historical foundations and uses for human resources management. Human Resource Management Review, 23(3), 205-218. doi: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2012.12.002

O*NET Online. (2019). Retrieved from

Spector, P. E. (2012). Industrial and organizational psychology: Research and practice (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

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