Assignment: Leader Development–Personality Traits, Cognitive Abilities And Skills, And Emotional Intelligence:

For this Assignment, you will use the results of the leader assessments( Attached Below) from Week 1 to make inferences about the personality traits, cognitive abilities/skills, and aspects of emotional intelligence that you may need to develop to be successful in the leadership role you identified.

You also will create one SMART goal for developing one specific personality trait, cognitive ability/skill, or aspect of emotional intelligence; identify two learning activities for achieving your goal; and explain how you will assess your achievement of the goal.

To Prepare for this Assignment:

  • Review      this week’s Learning Resources. Recall how personality traits, cognitive      abilities and skills, and emotional intelligence contribute to effective      leadership.
  • Revisit      the results of the leader assessments you completed last week. Identify one personality trait, one cognitive ability or skill, and one aspect of      emotional intelligence you need to develop to be successful in the leadership role and organization you identified. Pay particular attention to the examples of goals, learning activities, and measurement strategies.
    • Read       the resource below (LeadershipDevelopmentResourceAid)  entitled SMART Criteria” and the chapter, “How to Set Development Goals.” Consider how to write leader development goals that are specific,       measurable, attainable, relevant, and timely. Then, write one SMART goal to further develop a specific personality trait, cognitive ability/skill,or aspect of emotional intelligence that you need to develop to be       successful in the leadership role and organization.
    • Peruse the other resources and identify one on-the-job activity, one mentoring, coaching, or feedback activity, and one classroom-based activity you would engage in to achieve your goal.
    • Find an article (peer reviewed) that relates to evaluating Leadership Development Programs.and consider the methods you would use and data you would collect to assess whether you achieved your goal. Be sure to focus       on Level 3 (Application and Implication) and 4 (Results or Business  impact) of the evaluation framework that is attached.

By Day 7

Submit a 1- to 2-page paper that addresses the following:

Based on the results of your assessments, identify one personality trait, one cognitive ability or skill, and one aspect of emotional intelligence you need to develop to be successful in the leadership role and organization you identified.

Create one SMART goal to further develop a specific personality trait, cognitive ability/skill, or aspect of emotional intelligence necessary for the leadership role.

Describe one on-the-job activity, one mentoring, coaching, or feedback activity, and one classroom-based activity you would engage in to achieve your goal.

Explain the methods you would use and data you would collect to assess whether you have achieved your development goal

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Leader Development Plan Instructional Aid

By Day 7 of Week 4, you will submit a personal Leader Development Plan based on a leadership role of interest to you. Listed below are the major components of the plan along with a detailed explanation of each. Assess your strengths and limitations. Keep in mind that even the best leaders have limitations and can benefit from leader development; therefore, finding that you also have some limitations is perfectly normal. With that said, good leader development plans include targeted activities to develop strengths and manage limitations. For example, a highly introverted leader might engage in activities to improve active listening, a skill that comes more naturally to introverts, with the end goal of forming stronger bonds with colleagues. This leader may also engage in development activities to overcome discomfort related to networking, a skill that comes more naturally to extroverts. Therefore, the chosen development activities are not intended to turn an introvert into an extravert, but rather to build on existing strengths and find ways to manage limitations. Create SMART Goals. SMART goals are those that are specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and timely. An example of a SMART goal is: Apply active listening skills to interactions with the CFO, COO, and CIO during one-on-one meetings over the next 2 months. Conversely, an example of a poorly written goal is: Improve relationships with colleagues. Identify development activities. Use the 70-20-10 approach as a guideline for your Leader Development Plan.

• 70% of your development activities should be on-the-job learning (e.g., participating in challenging assignments that allow you to apply leadership knowledge and skills);

• 20% should be learning through coaching, mentoring, and feedback, and;

• 10% should be formal, classroom-based learning. Please note the above percentages are approximations only. You are not required to adhere to the exact percentages. Just be sure that most of your development activities occur on the job, some occur through mentoring, coaching, and feedback, and very few occur in a classroom setting. Identify action steps you will take to complete the development activities. Action steps may include contacting a supervisor or colleague about a project you think would help develop your leadership skills, scheduling a meeting to receive feedback on how well you applied specific leadership skills, or registering for a leadership workshop. Identify resources you will need to complete the development activities. Resources may include time, cost, and leadership resources. Identify the timeline for completing the development activities. Be sure to indicate a specific and realistic date by which you will complete the leader development activities.

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Identify methods and data to assess your achievement of SMART goals. To assess your achievement, focus on measuring how well you apply your knowledge and skills while on the job and/or the business results from doing so. Consider the following examples: You could ask your supervisor to observe you applying strategic thinking skills to determine whether you have mastered that skill. You could engage in 360- degree feedback where your colleagues and employees provide input about your improvement. You could keep track of the number of business deals you make as a result of your improved networking skills and the subsequent profit of those business deals.

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You are encouraged to use the following table and examples to guide your thinking as you develop your plan. It may be

useful to include similar tables depicting your Leader Development Plan in the appendix of your paper; however, the

tables will not count towards the total page count.

Goal #1 Suppose your assessment results indicate that you need further development in transformational leadership. According to Northouse (2018), an important aspect of transformational leadership is individualized consideration, that is, listening to followers’ needs and assisting followers with their growth and development. Therefore, a leader development goal could be: Apply coaching and mentoring skills to employees as they complete assigned tasks and projects to further their development.

On-the-Job Learning

What on-the-job learning activities will you complete to achieve your goal?

• Hold bi-weekly, one-on-one meetings with each employee to learn more about their needs and goals.

• Delegate tasks or projects to each employee based on their goals.

• Use coaching and mentoring skills to help employees successfully accomplish assigned tasks and projects.

Learning Through Coaching, Mentoring, and Feedback

What learning activities will you complete with the help of others?

• Ask a transformational leader who has strong coaching and mentoring skills if I can observe him or her coaching and mentoring employees.

• Invite the leader to attend three of my one-on-one meetings with employees and give me feedback on my coaching and mentoring skills.

Formal, Classroom-Based Learning

What formal, classroom-based activities will you complete to achieve your goal?

• Attend a workshop called, “Coaching Essentials,” developed by the Ken Blanchard Companies.

Action Planning

What action steps do you need to take to complete the activities?

• Schedule bi-weekly meetings with each employee.

• Identify upcoming tasks or projects to assign to employees.

• Identify a transformational leader within the company who has strong coaching and mentoring skills. Contact him or her to schedule observations.

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• Complete some pre-reading on coaching and mentoring.

• Register for coaching workshop.

Resources

What resources or help will you need to complete the activities?

• Two hours of employee time per month to participate in one-on-one meetings.

• Fourteen hours of my time per month to hold one-on-one meetings with each of the seven employees.

• Additional time, as needed, for coaching and mentoring outside of scheduled one-on-ones.

• Three hours of my time to observe the transformational leader and two additional hours to discuss his or her feedback after observing me.

• Ten hours to complete the following pre-reading about coaching and mentoring: o Emelo, R. (2015). Shift your focus with modern mentoring. Talent Development, 69(9), 36–41. o Grant, A. M., & Hartley, M. (2013). Developing the leader as coach: Insights, strategies and tips

for embedding coaching skills in the workplace. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 6(2), 102–115.

o Lancer, N., Clutterbuck, D., & Megginson, D. (2016). Techniques for coaching and mentoring. London: Routledge.

• Six hundred dollars and eight hours to attend coaching workshop.

Timeline

What is the timeline for completing the activities?

• Complete pre-reading and attend workshop by June 30th.

• Observe leader by July 15th. Ask the leader to observe me in three meetings on September 15th.

• Schedule to one-on-ones to begin on August 1st.

• Assign tasks and projects by August 15th.

Measurement

How will you measure whether you achieved your goal?

• Work with Human Resources to develop a survey that assesses employee perceptions of the degree to which they feel supported in their individual development and growth. Ask Human Resources to administer the survey before and after I complete the leader development activities.

• Obtain feedback from the leader who observed me in one-on-ones regarding how well I applied coaching and mentoring skills.

• Obtain a certificate of completion from the coaching workshop I attended.

You completed your evaluation at 8:57 am EST on November 30, 2019.

Prepared on November 30, 2019 for:

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1. Introduction

2. The Full Range Leadership Model

3. MLQ Scales — Full Range Leadership

4. Your MLQ Results

Leadership Profile Scores

Comparison with Norms: Your Leadership Scores

Your Strengths — Transformational Leadership

Your Areas for Development — Transformational Leadership

5. What is Authentic Leadership?

6. ALQ Scales

7. Authentic Leadership Effects

8. Your ALQ Results

Authentic Leadership Scale Scores

Comparison with Norms: Your Authentic Leadership Scores

Your Strengths & Areas for Development — Authentic Leadership

9. Understanding Your MLQ/ALQ Results

10. Building Your Individual Development Plan (IDP)

11. Individual Development Plan (IDP)

Resources

Appendix A. Personal Development — Attributes of Authentic Leadership

Appendix B. Developing Authentic Leadership in the Organizational Context

Appendix C. Recommended Reading

Appendix D. About Using Only the Self Form

Appendix E. ALQ Norms in This Report

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This report provides the results from your Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and Authentic Leadership

Questionnaire (ALQ) self-assessment: measures of how frequently you exhibit various leadership behaviors,

including authentic leadership styles.

The MLQ measures a full range of leadership styles, which may be grouped under three broad categories. Each

category differs in the nature of the leadership behaviors and their expected outcomes.

Transformational Leadership

Full Range Leadership® Model Style Labels

(Also known as the 5 I’s)   Builds Trust   IIA

(Idealized Influence — Attributes)

Acts with Integrity   IIB

(Idealized Influence — Behaviors)

Encourages Others   IM

(Inspirational Motivation)

Encourages Innovative Thinking   IS

(Intellectual Stimulation)

Coaches & Develops People   IC

(Individualized Consideration)

 

Transactional Leadership

 

Constructive   Rewards Achievement   CR

(Contingent Reward)

Corrective   Monitors Deviations & Mistakes   MBEA

(Management-by-Exception: Active)

 

Passive-Avoidant Behaviors

 

Passive   Fights Fires   MBEP

(Management-by-Exception: Passive)

Avoidant   Avoids Involvement   LF

 

(Laissez-Faire)

The MLQ also measures three outcomes of leadership — how frequently you inspire in your colleagues:

Extra Effort

Individual, Unit, and Organizational Effectiveness

Satisfaction with the Leadership

The ALQ measures how genuine, or authentic, is a leader’s behavior. The four ALQ scales are: Self Awareness,

Transparency, Ethical/Moral, and Balanced Processing.

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The Full Range model includes numerous leadership styles, and all leaders display each style to some degree.

Ideally, the Transformational and Authentic leadership styles (most active and effective) should be used the most

often. By contrast the Avoids Involvement (PA) style, which is the most passive and ineffective style, should be

used the least often.

MLQ/ALQ Research Findings

The MLQ is the most researched measure of leadership styles, demonstrating strong validity, reliability, and use

as a predictor of positive organizational outcomes. For a partial list of the many MLQ studies, go to:

https://www.mindgarden.com/16-multifactor-leadership-questionnaire#horizontalTab5

The ALQ was developed to extend the styles in the MLQ to include morality and authenticity. For a partial list of

the rapidly growing body of research on the ALQ, go to:

https://www.mindgarden.com/69-authentic-leadership-questionnaire#horizontalTab5

The two instruments together provide a comprehensive evaluation of leadership styles. The chart above

conceptually integrates the MLQ + ALQ, though researchers should note that this model has not had the extent of

empirical evidence as the version with just the MLQ scales.

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Transformational Leadership

Transformational leadership is a process of influencing in which leaders change their associates’ awareness of

what is important, and move these associates to see themselves and the opportunities and challenges of their

environment in a new way. Transformational leaders are proactive: they seek to optimize individual, group and

organizational development and innovation — not to merely perform “at expectations.” They convince their

associates to strive for higher levels of potential as well as higher levels of moral and ethical standards.

Builds Trust

(Idealized Influence — Attributes)

These leaders are able to build trust in their followers. They inspire power and pride in their followers by going

beyond their own individual interests and focusing on the interests of the group.

Instill pride in others for being associated with them

Go beyond self-interest for the good of the group

Act in ways that build others’ respect for them

Display a sense of power and confidence

 

Acts with Integrity

(Idealized Influence — Behaviors)

These leaders act with integrity. They talk about their most important values and beliefs, they focus on a

desirable vision, and almost always consider the moral and ethical consequences of their actions. They also

focus on building a commonly shared vision or mission for the group.

Talk about their most important values and beliefs

Specify the importance of having a strong sense of purpose

Consider the moral and ethical consequences of decisions

Emphasize the importance of having a collective sense of mission

 

 

Encourages Others

(Inspirational Motivation)

These leaders behave in ways that motivate those around them by providing meaning and challenge to

their followers’ work. Individual and team spirit is aroused; enthusiasm and optimism are displayed. The

leader encourages followers to envision a better future for the organization, as well as for themselves.

Talk optimistically about the future

Talk enthusiastically about what needs to be accomplished

Articulate a compelling vision of the future

Express confidence that goals will be achieved

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Encourages Innovative Thinking

(Intellectual Stimulation)

These leaders stimulate their followers’ efforts to be innovative and creative by questioning assumptions,

reframing problems, and approaching old situations in new ways. There is no ridicule or public criticism of

individual members’ mistakes. New ideas and creative solutions to problems are solicited from followers,

who are included in the process of addressing problems and finding solutions.

Re-examine critical assumptions to question whether they are appropriate

Seek differing perspectives when solving problems

Get others to look at problems from many different angles

Suggest new ways of looking at how to complete assignments

 

Coaches & Develops People

(Individual Consideration)

These leaders pay attention to each individual’s need for achievement and growth by acting as a coach or

mentor. Followers are developed to higher levels of potential by creating new learning opportunities in a

supportive climate. Individual differences in needs and desires are recognized.

Spend time teaching and coaching

Treat others as individuals rather than just as a member of the group

Consider each individual as having different needs, abilities, and aspirations from others

Help others to develop their strengths

Transactional Leadership

Transactional leaders display behaviors associated with two transaction styles: constructive (Rewards

Achievement) and corrective (Monitors Deviations & Mistakes). Transactional leadership defines expectations

and promotes performance to achieve these levels. Providing rewards for achievement and monitoring deviations

and mistakes are two core behaviors associated with ‘management’ functions in organizations. (Full-range

leaders use these styles when necessary but focus on using Transformational styles whenever possible.)

 

Rewards Achievement

(Contingent Reward)

Leaders who frequently reward achievement tend to clarify expectations and offer recognition when goals are

achieved. This should result in individuals and groups achieving expected levels of performance.

Provide others with assistance in exchange for their efforts

Discuss in specific terms who is responsible for achieving performance goals

Make clear what one can expect when performance goals are achieved

Express satisfaction when others meet expectations

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Monitors Deviations & Mistakes

(Management-by-Exception: Active)

These leaders specify the standards for compliance, as well as what constitutes ineffective performance, and

may punish followers for being out of compliance with those standards. This style of leadership implies

close monitoring for deviations, mistakes, and errors, then taking immediate corrective action.

Focus their attention on irregularities, mistakes, exceptions, and deviations from standards

Concentrate their full attention on dealing with mistakes, complaints, and failures

Keep track of all mistakes

Direct their attention toward failures to meet standards

Passive/Avoidant Behavior

Another form of leadership is more passive and reactive: this leader does not respond to situations and problems

systematically. Passive leaders avoid specifying agreements, clarifying expectations and providing goals and

standards. This style has a negative effect on desired outcomes. In this regard it is similar to Laissez-Faire styles

— or “no leadership.” Both types of behavior have negative impacts on followers and associates. Accordingly,

both styles can be grouped together as Passive/Avoidant Leadership.

 

Fights Fires

(Management-by-Exception: Passive)

These leaders fight fires in their team or organization — they wait for a problem to appear before taking

corrective action. In this style, corrective action is most often punitive.

Fail to interfere until problems become serious

Wait for things to go wrong before taking action

Show a firm belief in “if it ain’t broken, don’t fix it”

Demonstrate that problems must become chronic before taking action

 

Avoids Involvement

(Laissez-Faire)

These leaders tend to avoid involvement. This leadership style could be easily defined as ‘non-leadership.’

These permissive leaders refuse to assume the responsibilities that are part of their position as leaders: they do

not offer enough information to their followers, do not offer feedback, and do not acknowledge or work towards

their followers’ satisfaction.

Avoid getting involved when important issues arise

Are absent when needed

Avoid making decisions

Delay responding to urgent questions

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Outcomes of Leadership

Transformational and Transactional leadership are both related to the success of the group. The following

outcomes (Generates Extra Effort, Is Productive, and Generates Satisfaction) are desired results of leadership.

Numerous scientific studies have shown that these outcomes — and many others such as productivity,

innovation and sales performance — are achieved at the highest levels when Transformational leadership is

used.

 

Generates Extra Effort

(Extra Effort)

These leaders are able to generate extra effort in their followers. Extra effort is defined as the wish of followers

to strive for superior performance by acting beyond their job expectations.

Get others to do more than they are expected to do

Heighten others’ desire to succeed

Increase others’ willingness to try harder

 

Is Productive

(Effectiveness)

These leaders are able to be effective. Effective leaders represent their group to higher organizational levels,

meet organizational objectives, and are productive in all the domains with which they are involved.

Are effective in meeting others’ job-related needs

Are effective in representing their group to higher authority

Are effective in meeting organizational requirements

Lead a group that is effective

 

Generates Satisfaction

(Satisfaction with the Leadership)

These leaders are able to generate satisfaction in their followers. These leaders are warm, nurturing, open,

authentic, and honest, with good interpersonal and social skills. They are capable of developing feelings of job

and organizational satisfaction in their followers.

Use methods of leadership that are satisfying

Work with others in a satisfactory way

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The bar chart below shows how you rated yourself on leadership behaviors. Use the frequency measure below to

interpret the graphs.

Frequency

0 = Not at all

1 = Once in awhile

2 = Sometimes

3 = Fairly often

4 = Frequently, if not always

 

 

Builds Trust (IIA) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

3.8

Acts with Integrity (IIB) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

3.5

Encourages Others (IM) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

3.5

Encourages Innovative

Thinking (IS) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

3.3

Coaches & Develops

People (IC) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

2.3

Benchmark*

*According to the Research Validated Benchmark, the ideal frequency of all five Transformational behaviors should be a “Fairly Often” rating of 3

or greater.

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Rewards Achievement (CR) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

3

Benchmark*

*According to the Research Validated Benchmark, the ideal frequency of Rewards Achievement (CR) behaviors should be between “Sometimes”

and “Fairly Often” (2.0 – 3.0).

Monitors Deviations &

Mistakes (MBEA) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

1.3

Benchmark**

**According to the Research Validated Benchmark, the ideal frequency of Monitors Deviations & Mistakes (MBEA) behaviors should be between

“Once in awhile” and “Sometimes” (1.0 – 2.0).

 

Fights Fires (MBEP) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

0

Avoids Involvement (LF) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

1.3

Benchmark***

***According to the Research Validated Benchmark, the ideal frequency of Passive/Avoidant behaviors should be between “Not at all” and “Once in

awhile” (0 – 1.0).

 

Generates Extra Effort (EE) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

+     4

Is Productive (EFF) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

+     4

Generates Satisfaction

(SAT) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

3.5

Benchmark*

*According to the Research Validated Benchmark, the strongest leaders achieve rated frequencies for the above Outcomes of 3.5 or greater.

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Your self-rating scores for the MLQ Transformational scales are shown below. Included for comparison:

Universal Norm scores from the MLQ Self assessments of 3,755 leaders.

Normative scores from your group, if you have so selected.

Use the frequency measure below to interpret the graphs.

Frequency

0 = Not at all

1 = Once in awhile

2 = Sometimes

3 = Fairly often

4 = Frequently, if not always

Builds Trust (IIA) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

3.8

Universal Norm

2.9

Acts with Integrity (IIB) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

3.5

Universal Norm

2.8

Encourages Others (IM) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

3.5

Universal Norm

2.9

Encourages Innovative

Thinking (IS) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

3.3

Universal Norm

2.8

Coaches & Develops

People (IC) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

2.3

Universal Norm

2.9

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Rewards Achievement (CR) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

3

Universal Norm

2.9

Monitors Deviations &

Mistakes (MBEA) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

1.3

Universal Norm

1.7

 

 

Fights Fires (MBEP) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

0

Universal Norm

0.7

Avoids Involvement (LF) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

1.3

Universal Norm

2.7

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Generates Extra Effort (EE) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

+     4

Universal Norm

3.1

Is Productive (EFF) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

+     4

Universal Norm

3.1

Generates Satisfaction

(SAT) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Score

Self Rating

3.5

Universal Norm

1

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This section lists your perceived Transformational Leadership strengths. You scored highest frequencies on

these ten leadership behaviors and they are sorted from the highest to the lowest rated items.

Score Scale Item

4 IM I express confidence that goals will be achieved.

4 IIB I emphasize the importance of having a collective sense of mission.

4 Intellectual Stimulation I suggest new ways of looking at how to complete assignments.

4 IC I help others to develop their strengths.

4 Intellectual Stimulation I get others to look at problems from many different angles.

4 IM I articulate a compelling vision of the future.

4 IIA I display a sense of power and confidence.

4 IIB I consider the moral and ethical consequences of decisions.

4 IIA I act in ways that build others’ respect for me.

4 IIB I specify the importance of having a strong sense of purpose.

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This section lists your perceived Transformational Leadership areas which could be further developed. You

scored lowest frequencies on these ten leadership behaviors, and they are sorted from the lowest to the highest

rated item. You may wish to focus first on the lowest-score items for your development.

Score Scale Item

0 IC

I consider each individual as having different needs, abilities, and

aspirations from others.

2 Intellectual Stimulation

I re-examine critical assumptions to question whether they are

appropriate.

2 IIB I talk about my most important values and beliefs.

2 IC

I treat others as individuals rather than just as members of the

group.

3 Intellectual Stimulation I seek differing perspectives when solving problems.

3 IM I talk optimistically about the future.

3 IM I talk enthusiastically about what needs to be accomplished.

3 IC I spend time teaching and coaching.

3 IIA I go beyond self-interest for the good of the group.

4 IIA I instill pride in others for being associated with me.

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Descriptive words for authenticity include genuine, reliable, trustworthy, real, and veritable. Authenticity can be

conceived as both owning personal experiences (thoughts, emotions, or beliefs, “the real me inside”), and acting

in accord with one’s true self (behaving and expressing what is really thought and believed). The authentic leader

is confident, hopeful, optimistic, resilient, transparent, moral/ethical, and future-oriented. The authentic leader is

true to him/herself and exhibits authenticity through behaviors that — when positively modeled by followers —

transform and develop them into becoming authentic leaders themselves. Authentic leaders are active and

positive in the way they behave and how they interact with others.

First, authentic leaders are guided by values consistent with doing what is right for those in their team, unit,

organization, or community. These values include a central belief that each individual has something positive to

contribute.

Second, authentic leaders try to continually narrow or eliminate any gap between their espoused values (one’s

true self) and the values they use every day. This requires a deep understanding of one’s own core values in

order to communicate and consistently behave in accord with these values.

Third, authentic leaders remain aware of their own vulnerabilities and openly discuss them with associates. This

helps leaders ensure that they continue to head in the “right” direction. They turn a high level of transparency

regarding their vulnerabilities into a strength based on people’s respect for knowing what the leader can and

cannot do.

Fourth, authentic leaders consistently think about building authenticity in their associates, helping to develop

each one’s psychological capacity and strength.

Finally, authentic leaders have developed the moral capacity to judge “gray area” issues and dilemmas. They

have the credibility to explore such issues from all angles and seek alternative approaches without being

perceived as disingenuous or shifting with popular opinion. Authentic leaders can change their mind and still be

seen as acting consistently with their core values, and thus staying authentic.

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Self Awareness

As a leader, are you aware of your strengths, limitations, how others see you, and how you impact others?

Leaders with self-awareness demonstrate an understanding of how one makes meaning of the world and

how that understanding process impacts one’s self-perception over time. Leaders with self-awareness

understand their strengths and weaknesses, and the multifaceted nature of the self, which includes gaining

self-insight through exposure to others and being aware of one’s impact on other people.

With self-awareness, one is aware of, and trusts in, their own motives, feelings, desires, personality

characteristics, emotions, and self-relevant thoughts.

The items rated on the Self Awareness scale are:

As a leader,

I accurately describe how others view my capabilities.

I seek feedback to improve interactions with others.

I know when it is time to reevaluate my position on important issues.

I show I understand how specific actions impact others.

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Transparency

As a leader, to what degree do you reinforce a level of openness with others, providing them with an

opportunity to be forthcoming with their ideas, challenges, and opinions?

Transparency is presenting one’s authentic self (not a fake or distorted self) to others. This behavior

promotes trust through disclosures that include openly sharing information and expressions of one’s true

thoughts and feelings.

In authentic relationships, you endorse the importance for others to see the “real you” — both the positive

and negative aspects. Toward that end, authentic relationships involve a selective process of self-disclosure

and the development of mutual intimacy and trust.

Authentic leaders communicate to others their true intentions and desires. They say exactly what they mean.

The items rated on the Transparency scale are:

As a leader,

I say exactly what I mean.

I admit mistakes when they are made.

I encourage everyone to speak their mind.

I tell others the hard truth.

I display emotions exactly in line with feelings.

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Ethical/Moral

As a leader, to what degree do you set a high standard for moral and ethical conduct?

Moral perspective is an internalized and integrated form of self-regulation. This sort of self-regulation is

guided by internal moral standards, versus externally derived standards, e.g., from one’s social group, work

organization, or the current society. Ethical/moral behaviors show decision-making and behavior that is

consistent with internalized values.

The items rated on the Ethical/Moral scale are:

As a leader,

I demonstrate beliefs that are consistent with actions.

I make decisions based on my core values.

I ask others to take positions that support their core values.

I make difficult decisions based on high standards of ethical conduct.

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Balanced Processing

As a leader, to what degree do you solicit enough opinions and viewpoints from others before making

important decisions, to ensure that your process is viewed as fair and just?

Leaders who use balanced processing demonstrate due diligence and objectively analyze all relevant data

before coming to a decision. Such leaders also solicit views that challenge their deeply held positions.

Leaders who use balanced processing take input from diverse points of view. They consider how the diverse

views may fairly and objectively shape their interpretation and decisions regarding a particular challenge or

opportunity.

The items rated on the Balanced Processing scale are:

As a leader,

I solicit views that challenge my deeply held positions.

I analyze relevant data before coming to a decision.

I listen carefully to different points of view before coming to conclusions.

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Leadership

Why are authenticity and the authentic characteristics of Self Awareness, Transparency, Ethical/Moral, and

Balanced Processing important to leadership and its development? Think about working for someone who

exhibits a genuine desire to understand their own leadership in order to serve others more effectively. They act in

accordance with their deep personal values and convictions to build credibility and win the respect and trust of

their colleagues. They encourage diverse viewpoints and build networks of collaborative relationships with their

colleagues. It is easy to understand the power of working with someone like this and why striving for greater

levels of authenticity makes practical sense in any leadership role or relationship with followers.

Direct Effects

Being aware of how one affects others, the balanced processing of information, transparency in relationships,

and consistency between values, words, and deeds (i.e., internalized moral perspective and ethical behaviors) as

exhibited by authentic leaders instills in others elevated levels of commitment, willingness to perform behaviors

outside the work role (e.g., good citizenship in the organization), and higher satisfaction with the leader.

Indirect Effects

Authentic leaders lead by example (e.g., role modeling) as they display high moral standards, honesty, and

integrity, thereby eliciting followers to personally identify with them and to then model their style of leadership.

Personal identification is the process whereby one’s beliefs about the leader become self-defining and

self-referential. Thus, as followers model authentic leaders, they come to view themselves as honest persons of

high moral standards and integrity. Through this modeling, they also begin to cascade the authenticity of their

leader to subsequent levels of leadership, in a sense operating as surrogates of their leader.

Social identification is a process through which individuals come to identify with a group, take pride in belonging,

and value group membership as an important part of their identity. Authentic leaders increase followers’ social

identification by building a sense of  moral values that characterize their group and using honesty and integrity in

their dealings with followers. Authentic leaders don’t encourage identification with the leader as a particular

person but as a representative of the core values of their team, unit or organization. Reinforcing social

identification elicits followers’ commitment and satisfaction to the ‘group’ and to achieving positive work outcomes

together. Authentic leaders become a role model for self awareness, transparency, balanced processing and high

moral/ethical standards, which can become modeled throughout the organization.

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The graphs below display your scores for overall Authentic Leadership and for each of the Authentic Leadership

scales. Use the frequency measure below to interpret the graphs.

Frequency

0 = Not at all

1 = Once in awhile

2 = Sometimes

3 = Fairly often

4 = Frequently, if not always

 

Overall ALQ

Overall ALQ 0 1 2 3 4

Score

Self Rating

3.8

 

Authentic Leadership Scales

Self Awareness 0 1 2 3 4

Score

Self Rating

4

Transparency 0 1 2 3 4

Score

Self Rating

3.6

Ethical/Moral 0 1 2 3 4

Score

Self Rating

4

Balanced Processing 0 1 2 3 4

Score

Self Rating

3.7

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Your self-rating scores for the Authentic Leadership scales are shown below. Included for comparison:

Normative scores from several other groups, provided by the authors. Details about these groups

are in Appendix E.

Normative scores from your group, if you have so selected.

Use the frequency measure below to interpret the graphs.

Frequency

0 = Not at all

1 = Once in awhile

2 = Sometimes

3 = Fairly often

4 = Frequently, if not always

Authentic Leadership Scales

Self Awareness 0 1 2 3 4

Score

Self Rating

4

Several normative groups (N = 892)

2.2

Transparency 0 1 2 3 4

Score

Self Rating

3.6

Several normative groups (N = 892)

2.4

Ethical/Moral 0 1 2 3 4

Score

Self Rating

4

Several normative groups (N = 892)

2.5

Balanced Processing 0 1 2 3 4

Score

Self Rating

3.7

Several normative groups (N = 892)

2.2

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This section lists your perceived Authentic Leadership behaviors sorted from Strengths, which are high-frequency

behaviors, to Development Opportunities, which are low-frequency behaviors. Generally, one should have a goal

of 3.0 frequency (Fairly often) to 4.0 (Frequently, if not always) for these behaviors.

Score Scale Item

4 Self Awareness I show I understand how specific actions impact others.

4 Self Awareness

I know when it is time to reevaluate my position on important issues.

4 Self Awareness I accurately describe how others view my capabilities.

4 Self Awareness I seek feedback to improve interactions with others.

4 Balanced Processing

I listen carefully to different points of view before coming to

conclusions.

4 Balanced Processing I analyze relevant data before coming to a decision.

4 Moral/Ethical

I make difficult decisions based on high standards of ethical

conduct.

4 Moral/Ethical I ask others to take positions that support their core values.

4 Moral/Ethical I make decisions based on my core values.

4 Moral/Ethical I demonstrate beliefs that are consistent with actions.

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Score Scale Item

4 Transparency I tell others the hard truth.

4 Transparency I encourage everyone to speak their mind.

4 Transparency I admit mistakes when they are made.

4 Transparency I say exactly what I mean.

3 Balanced Processing I solicit views that challenge my deeply held positions.

2 Transparency I display emotions exactly in line with feelings.

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Consider your results in three phases:

Phase I — What are your results? Review your scores and look for trends, gaps, and summaries. Assume

these will be good starting points for your development.

Phase II — What do your results mean? Use this second, interpretive step of the process to explore the

implications of your results. Compare your scores to norms and research benchmarks: where are your strengths

and what areas need to be developed?

Phase III — What are your next steps? The third and most important phase of your process is to build your

Individual Development Plan (IDP). Review your MLQ/ALQ results with a trusted colleague or a leadership coach

to help you frame a set of objectives for your IDP.

Consider setting a time when you can review your progress by repeating the MLQ/ALQ self-assessment.

Mind Garden also provides a full “360” MLQ/ALQ assessment and report for reviewing your actual leadership

style as seen by raters/observers. You may wish to consider taking the MLQ/ALQ 360:

https://www.mindgarden.com/multifactor-leadership-questionnaire/608-mlq-ii-360-leaders-report-

with-authentic-leadership-styles.html

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Use your MLQ/ALQ results to consider the following points as you build your IDP:

What are some things you should start to do (because you rarely, if ever, show them at work)?

What are some things you should continue to emphasize? Are these strengths that could be

brought forward more often and leveraged for further benefit?

What are some things you could stop doing (perhaps because you over-rely or overdo them)?

Did some aspect of this report challenge your thinking about your leadership style?

Include some metrics in your IDP:

State the specific steps you will take in order to produce consistent, lasting improvement.

Include a metric that is a clear and obvious way to measure your progress.

With your new understanding of transformational leadership with authentic styles, you can

brainstorm and discuss with others the behaviors and actions you could take to become a more

effective leader.

Once you have selected the key actions to take, you should measure and record the frequency of

these behaviors to track your leadership growth.

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Based on my MLQ/ALQ results, here are two or three specific developmental goals:

 

 

 

Actions I will take to improve my effectiveness:

Action                                             Expected Outcome                                           Timeframe

 

 

 

How I will monitor my progress?

 

 

 

Resources or support I need to achieve my development plan:

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Consider the four components of authentic leadership: Leader Self Awareness, Moral/Ethical Perspective,

Transparency, and Balanced Processing. You can regularly include the suggested actions for each component to

strengthen your authentic leadership.

Leader Self Awareness

Leaders with high self awareness are mindful of how they think about, feel about, and choose to affect the people

they influence. This self awareness includes:

Thinking — being aware of your attitudes about interactions with others on a particular issue or

topic. This includes your efforts to change their way of thinking or behavior.

Emoting — being aware of how you come across from an emotional perspective. Are you perceived

as more positive? More neutral? More negative?

Behaving — being aware of how you choose to act: what do you want to display to others? Highly

authentic leaders have alignment between how they see themselves, how they want to be seen, and

how others see them.

To boost your self awareness as a leader, practice self-reflection. This can highlight your reactions to the

important moments that inform how you best influence others. Think about your day as a series of episodes:

which moments informed how you were able to effectively influence others? Keep a journal and note any

patterns.

Practice self-observation and mindfulness. Observe your thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in the moment by

asking yourself, “What’s happening now?” You can ask yourself this question in challenging, stressful,

exhilarating, or conflicting conditions. For example, what were you thinking right before you began the challenge?

How did your thinking and emotions change once you were engaged in the challenge?

Moral/Ethical Perspective

Moral/Ethical Perspective deals with issues of what is right, wrong, and ethical. Authentic leaders possess a

strong internalized moral perspective or “compass” that enables them to act in ways aligned with their core values

despite group, organizational or social pressures that could otherwise steer them off course. People with a higher

level of moral reasoning and perspective-taking capacity can see and understand difficult trade-offs where they

must make choices. The trade-off may be between one’s self-interest and that of the collective. As leaders reach

higher levels of moral perspective, they weigh the costs and consequences of their actions based on their own

internal judgment with the aspirational goal of doing what’s best for all, even if compromises have to be made.

Someone who is incapable of seeing another person’s perspective or who doesn’t care, and is completely

self-interested, has a lower level of moral/ethical perspective. But a leader with a high level of moral/ethical

perspective stays true to their principles even under extreme circumstances. For example, a leader may feel

pressured to make a decision because it’s practical, makes sense to stakeholders, and supports people who

matter to the leader. But when this leader uses an internal standard to make a different decision focused on

doing the right thing, rather than doing what others prefer or what is easiest, she demonstrates a high level of

moral/ethical perspective. Such behavior engenders greater trust among followers who feel they can follow the

leader and trust her to act in accord with their values.

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To enhance your moral/ethical perspective, identify your core values and principles. Periodically review your

actions against your core values. Take a difficult moral dilemma and explore the principles you would use to

guide your decisions and actions. Ask your colleagues to do the same and explore similarities, differences, and

the sources of your moral principles. Read about world-class leaders with admirable moral values and principles.

Describe how those leaders’ values align with your own values.

Transparency

Authentic leaders show transparency by openly sharing their true thoughts and feelings in the interest of

exploring the right course of action rather than simply conceding to popular opinion. These leaders are up-front

about their motives and the reasoning behind their preferences or decisions. When a leader is seen as

transparent, followers do not perceive any hidden motives or filtering by this leader. What they hear from the

leader is considered to be unbiased and in line with what they believe the leader knows. Followers can trust what

they’ve been told by the leader, and that the leader conveys what he knows when he knows it. This leads to

higher levels of trust, increasing the likelihood that people will express things that aren’t easy to talk about and

share a mindset within the team that it is safe to speak candidly.

To enhance leader transparency:

Share relevant information freely.

Regularly request feedback and give feedback, especially positive feedback.

Ask people what they don’t know and how you can better inform them.

Share your motives and the reasoning behind your decisions.

Review your important events to see if your words and actions were aligned.

Ask colleagues for feedback on the alignment of your words and actions.

Balanced Processing

Authentic leaders show balanced processing by accurately and objectively analyzing all relevant data and

stakeholder views before coming to a decision. They solicit views that challenge their own positions on issues.

These leaders recognize that a diversity of views and healthy debate lead to more adaptive, innovative, and

sustainable solutions.

Leaders who show a high level of balanced processing go beyond simply looking at competing interests and

issues; they come up with solutions that balance the different options. These leaders exercise and inspire

patience and will delay judgment for a period of time while they actively seek and wait for others’ input in order to

objectively assess an opportunity or challenge.

Authentic leaders are capable of being decisive when immediate action is needed, but are also comfortable

suspending judgment and using the time available to stay open-minded while gathering facts, testing

assumptions, and weighing different options. They stay focused on solutions that uphold core beliefs rather than

slipping into self-protective responses, even if there is tension between competing interests.

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A leader’s deliberate consideration of the bigger picture (balanced processing) builds their followers’ trust in the

leader’s decision-making. If a leader is leaning in one of several possible directions and consistently takes that

direction, such action may indicate bias and may not be balanced. Leaders who show a high degree of balanced

processing see and take other avenues for action over time to ensure fairness.

To enhance balanced processing:

Seek out conflicting perspectives when making important decisions.

Pay attention to your personal biases and tendencies to stereotype people or situations that might

interfere with openness to important input.

Uncover and understand the assumptions embedded in your decisions.

Listen carefully to different points of view before coming to conclusions.

Create diverse teams by including members with a range of backgrounds and beliefs. Explore how

that diversity can and does influence decisions.

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You may wish to practice your authentic leadership development in your organization by using the two-phase

framework of Exploration and Integration developed by Baron and Parent (2015).

Exploration Phase

Use the 3-step Exploration Phase to select new behaviors to help achieve your goals.

A. Developing self awareness

Self awareness comprises numerous reference points:

Recognizing one’s daily or automatic behaviors and attitudes

Awareness and understanding of one’s emotions

Awareness and understanding of one’s needs and values

Identifying past dynamics and how they shape or trigger current behaviors

Awareness of personal influence with others

Awareness of others’ emotions and behaviors

Awareness of one’s effect on others

B. Identifying possible behaviors to adopt

After gaining new insights and self awareness, you can identify behavioral areas where you feel you need

improvement. You can then set development goals to achieve positive change.

C. Trying out new behaviors

In the final Exploration step, you can try out new behaviors and see if they are effective. New insights from these

tests may lead to further behavior adjustments and continued testing.

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Integration Phase

The Integration Phase involves recognizing the new positive changes and integrating the new behaviors into the

organizational context.

A. The Trigger: Recognizing the Benefits of Change

As you see the positive changes generated by your new behaviors, you may be encouraged and more willing to

adopt the new behaviors. The positive changes are reflected in states of well-being: increased enjoyment of your

work, decreased stress, increased sense of pride, and increased feeling of balance. The beneficial effects of

authentic leadership on the organization as a whole include increased effectiveness of team members, increased

involvement by team members, and improved working environment.

B. Transferring Behaviors and Attitudes to the Workplace

As you adopt new workplace behaviors, you may find that a flexible workplace with supportive colleagues can

ease this transition. Leaders in a more challenging work environment may need to adopt a more gradual

approach or even accept a new position in the organization from which to put their new behaviors into practice.

Reference:

Baron, L. & Parent, E. (2015). Developing Authentic Leadership within a Training Context. Journal of Leadership

& Organizational Studies. doi: 10.1177/1548051813519501

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Books:

Avolio, B. J. (2011). Full range leadership development. CA: Sage.

Avolio, B.J. (2005). Leadership Development in Balance: Made/Born. NJ: Erlbaum & Associates.

Avolio, B.J., & Luthans, F. (2006). High Impact Leader: Moments matter in authentic leadership development.

NY: McGraw-Hill.

Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Zimmerman, C. (2014). Authentic leadership theory, research and practice:

Steps taken and steps that remain. Oxford Handbook of Leadership and Organizations. Oxford: Oxford University

Press.

Avolio, B.J., & Wernsing, T. S. (2008). Practicing authentic leadership. In Lopez, S. J. (Ed.). Positive psychology:

Exploring the best in people. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Company, pp. 147-165.

Bass, B. M. & Riggio, R. E. (2005). Transformational leadership (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum

Associates.

Gardner, W.L., Avolio, B.J., & Walumbwa, F. (2006). Authentic Leadership Theory and Practice: Origins, effects

and development. Amsterdam: Elsevier JAI Press.

Sosik, J. J. (2015). Leading with character: Stories of valor and virtue and the principles they teach (2nd ed.).

Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Sosik, J. J. & Jung, D. I. (2018). Full range leadership development: Pathways for people, profit and planet (2nd

ed.). New York: Routledge.

Articles:

Antonakis, J., Avolio B. J., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (2003). Context and leadership: an examination of the

nine-factor full-range leadership theory using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The Leadership

Quarterly, 14(3), 261-295.

Avolio, B.J., & Chan, A. (2008). The dawning of a new era for genuine leadership development.

Hodgkinson, G., & Ford, K. (eds.). International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 23,

197–238.

Avolio, B.J., & Gardner, W.L. (2005). Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of

leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 315-338.

Avolio, B.J., Gardner, W.L., Walumbwa, F.O., Luthans, F., & May, D. (2004). Unlocking the mask: A look at the

process by which authentic leaders’ impact follower attitudes and behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 15, 801-823.

Avolio, B. J., Griffith, J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Wernsing, T. S. (2010). What is authentic leadership development?

In P. A. Linley, S. Harrington, & N. Garcea (Eds.), Handbook of Positive Psychology and Work (39-52). Oxford:

Oxford University Press.

Avolio, B. J., Wernsing, T., & Gardner, W. L. (2018) Revisiting the development and validation of the Authentic

Leadership Questionnaire: Analytical considerations. Journal of Management, 44(2), 399-411.

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Gardner, W.L., Avolio, B.J., Luthans, F., May, D.R., & Walumbwa, F.O. (2005). Can you see the real me? A

self-based model of authentic leader and follower development. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 434-372.

Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B.J., Gardner, W.L., Wernsing, T.S., Peterson, S.J. (2008). Authentic

leadership: Development and validation of a theory-based measure. Journal of Management, 34(1), 89-126.

Zhu, W., Avolio, B. J., Riggio, R. E., Sosik, J. J. (2011). The effects of transformational leadership on follower and

group ethics. The Leadership Quarterly,10, 801-817.

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A note from MLQ/ALQ co-author Bruce Avolio

Occasionally it may be appropriate to have a leader do a self-rating only, with no rater/observer

feedback. However, there are many reasons to have others rate the leader’s style and behaviors. Here

are some important points to consider:

1. The choice of which rater source to use should be tied to the research or developmental question. If you are interested only in how leaders think about or perceive their own

leadership behavior, then collect only self ratings. In every other instance, why not collect

observation data from other sources?

2. Leaders can have unique relationships with peers, followers and other leaders, and the ratings will differ as a consequence of the unique nature of these relationships.

3. Since leadership is in the ‘eye of the beholder’, why collect data from only the ‘self beholder’?

4. There is considerable evidence indicating that self and other ratings often do not agree, for reasons mentioned above.

5. The Self form does not measure actual leadership behavior, rather it measures only the self-perception of leadership.

This is an important point: at core, leadership is in the eye of the beholder. Thus, to the degree that

one has only one source, the validity of that source is in question. This is true of every type of research

or assessment instrument, including personality instruments. If a leader has 10 followers and you get a

rating from just one, it is unlikely that that rating will represent the 9 other views — especially if that

rater has worked for the leader for one month or less. If we get ratings from peers, that may not

generalize to followers. If we get ratings from the leader him/herself, one must ask, how representative

are those ratings of all other sources? If your interest is to understand or change the self-perceptions

of a leader, then measuring only self ratings is appropriate. If the goal is to measure leadership

behavior, then measuring raters’/observers’ perceptions of that leader is the most appropriate.

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Three normative groups are included in what is referred to as “several norms” for the authentic leadership scales.

All three sample norms are from Walumbwa et al. 2008.

Sample 1 was 178 working MBA and evening adult students. The average age of participants was 26 years (SD

= 7.23), with 3.44 mean years (SD = 3.17) of work experience; 56% of the participants were female.

Sample 2 was 236 adult evening students with full-time jobs. The average age of the participants was 24.49

years (SD = 5.92), with 3.28 years (SD =2.55) of work experience; 48% were female.

Sample 3 was 478 working adults drawn from 11 diverse U.S. multinational companies operating in Kenya,

Africa. Approximately 98% of respondents indicated they were Africans.

 
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