B. Answer Learning Exercises

* Matching words parts 1, 2, 3, and 4

* Definitions

*Matching Terms and Definitions 1, 2

C. Answer the following questions base in chapter 1:

1. Define Word root, mention 5 examples.

2. Define Suffixes, mention 5 examples.

3. Define Prefixes, mention 5 examples.

4.  Some prefixes are confusing because they are similar in spelling, but opposite in meaning, those are call Contrasting Prefixes; mention 5 examples and their meaning.

First Week Assignment

Medical Terminology


Medical Terminology for Health Professions. Erlich, Ann & Schroeder, Carol L. Delmar-Cengage, 2017. Eigth Edition. ISBN: 978-1-305-63435-0.

A. Read Chapter 1.

Text Book: Medical Terminology for Health Professions. 7th edition. Author: Ann Ehrlich.

B. Answer Learning Exercises

* Matching words parts 1, 2, 3, and 4

* Definitions

*Matching Terms and Definitions 1, 2


C. Answer the following questions base in chapter 1:

1. Define Word root, mention 5 examples.

2. Define Suffixes, mention 5 examples.

3. Define Prefixes, mention 5 examples.

4. Some prefixes are confusing because they are similar in spelling, but opposite in meaning, those are call Contrasting Prefixes; mention 5 examples and their meaning.

Note: Please send this assignment as a Normal Microsoft office Word, attach the file in the normal assignment link in Blackboard, and before submit it confirm the attached file. Also be alert about the due date, late submitting will be low grade it or not accepted.

Medical Terminology

Basic Word Structure

Chapter One.

Chapter objectives

To divide medical terms into component parts.

To analyze, pronounce, and spell medical terms using common combining forms, suffixes, and prefixes.


Medical Language

You decided to pursue a career in the health care field and you will know so many new sights and sounds, also you want to embrace the medical culture and become part of it.

Your first attempts at interacting with other healthcare professionals are successful because you know medical language.

Immediately, you are immersed in interesting medical activities and important conversations, and you understand what is going on.

Your future in the healthcare is certain because you took the time to study medical language.

Medical language is the language of the healthcare profession, and medical words are the tools of the trade!

Learning medical language is your key to a successful career in the healthcare field.

Medical Language and communication.

Communication in any language consists of five language skills. You need to master all five skills in order to communicate on the job with other healthcare professional.



Thinking, analyzing, and understanding.

Writing (or typing) and spelling

Speaking and pronouncing.

– These skills are critical in the communication of medical language, and you will develop all five skills by given you many opportunities to practice until you have mastered all of them.

Word Analysis

If you work in a medical setting, you use medical words every day.

In addition, you hear medical terms spoken in your doctor’s office, read about health issues, and make daily decisions about your own health care and the health care of your family.

Terms such as: arthritis, electrocardiogram, hepatitis, and anemia describe conditions and tests that are familiar.

Other medical words are more complicated, but as you work in this course, you will begin to understand them even if you have never studied biology or science.

Medical words are like individual jigsaw puzzles. Once you divide the terms into their components and learns the meaning of the individual parts, you can use that knowledge to understand many other new terms.

For example, the term HEMATOLOGY is divide into three parts:







(study of)


When you analyze a medical term, begin at the END of the word. The ending is called a SUFFIX.

All Medical terms contain suffixes. The suffix in Hematology is –LOGY, which means study of.

Next, look at the beginning of the term. HEMAT- is the word root. The root gives the essential meaning of the term. The root HEMAT- means blood.

The third part of this term, which is the letter 0, has no meaning of its own but is an important connector between the root (HEMA-) and the suffix (-LOGY). It is called a combining vowel.

The letter O is the combining vowel usually found in Medical terms.

Now put together meanings of the suffix and the root: HEMATOLOGY means study of the blood.













The sound made by contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle is called the Heartbeat

Combining form

The combining vowel plus the root is called a COMBINING FORM.

For example, there are two combining forms in the word ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, these combining forms are ELECTR/O meaning electricity, and CARDI/O, meaning heart.

Gastroscope: Gastr/ combining form (stomach) scope: suffix (Instrument to examine)

GASTR/IC: GASTR (stomach) IC suffix ( pertaining to).

Means pertaining to the stomach. Notice that the combining word is dropped when the suffix (-IC) begins with a vowel.

Words ending with –IC are adjectives that modify a noun (e.g., gastric pain, gastric cancer).

Words ending in –AC are adjectives ( e.g., cardiac care, cardiac arrest)

ENTER/ITIS: Enter: root (Intestines) and ITIS suffix ( Inflammation).

Notice again that the combining vowel (O) is dropped because the suffix (-ITIS) begins with a vowel .


Many medical terms have a word part attached to the beginning of the term. This is called a PREFIX, and it can change the meaning of a term in important ways:

For example watch what happens to the meaning of the following medical terms when the prefix changes:

SUB/gastr/ic: SUB is prefix that means pertaining to below the stomach.

TRANS/gastr/ic: TRANS is a prefix ( Across) that means pertaining to across the stomach.

RETRO/gastri/ic: Retro is a prefix ( behind) that means pertaining to behind the stomach.


A- An no, not Anemia

Aut Self Autopsy ( Examining a dead body with one’s

own (self) eyes

Dia Complete Diagnosis

Dys Bad, painful Dysentery

Endo Within Endocrine glands. Endocardium

Exo Outside Exocrine glands

Hyper Excessive Hyperglycemia

Hypo Below Hypoglycemia

Pro Before, forward Prostate gland

Re Back Resection

Retro Behind Retrogastric

Sub Below, under Subhepatic

Trans Across, through Transdermal, Transurethral.


Al Neural

Algia Pain Arthralgia.


Cyte Cell Leukocyte

Ectomy Cutting out

Removal. Gastrectomy

Emia Blood condition Leukemia

Globin Protein Hemoglobin

Gram Record Arthrogram.

Ia Condition Cephalgia

Ism Condition,

Process Hyperthyoroidism

Itis Inflammation Gastroenteritis

Logist specialist in Neurologist

Osis abnormal condition Nephrosis

Scope Instrument to

examine. Gastroscope

Combining form meaning Medical term Meaning

Cyst/o Urinary bladder Cystoscope.

Aden/o Gland Adenoma OMA: tumor mass

Adenitis IT IS: Inflammation

Arthr/o Joint Arthritis

Bi/O Life Biology -Logy study of

Biopsy -OPSY. Living tissues are removed.

Carcin/o Cancer Carcinoma

Cardi/o Heart Cardiology

Cephal/o Head Cephalic.

Hemat/o Hematoma. Mass of blood trapped in tissues.

Cyt/o Cell Cytology

Derm/o Skin Dermal

Dermat/o Dermatitis

Encephal/o Brain Electroencephalogram (EEG)

Erythr/o Red Erythrocyte. Red blood cell.

Gastr/o Stomach Gastroscopy. (Visual examination using an instrument or “scope”

Gnos/o Knowledge Diagnosis. -SIS means state of; DIA- means complete.

A diagnosis is the complete knowledge gained after testing and examining the patient.

The plural of Diagnosis is diagnoses.

Prognosis: Pro- means before. A prognosis is a prediction (before knowledge) that is actually

made after the diagnosis. It forecasts the outcome of treatment.

Gynec/o Women-Female Gynecology. Gynecologist.

Lapar/o abdomen Laparotomy.

-TOMY means incision ( cutting into).

– Exploratory laparotomy is a large incision to inspect

abdominal organs for evidences of disease.

Leuk/o White Leukocyte

Nephr/o Kidney Nephrectomy. Ectomy resection of an organ.

Neur/o Nerve Neurology

Onc/o Tumor Oncologist.

-ist means a specialist

Ophthalm/o Eye Ophthalmoscope.

Ophthalmologist .

Oste/o Bone Osteoarthritis. (Degenerative changes and loss of

cartilage in knee joint)

Path/o Disease Pathologist.

Ren/o Kidney Renal

Rhin/o Nose Rhinitis

Sarc/o Flesh Sarcoma: Sarcoma grow from the fleshy tissues of the body

as muscle, fat, bone, cartilage.

Carcinoma: Arise from skin tissue and the linings of internal


Thromb/o Clotting Thrombocyte – Thrombosis.

Formation of Plural

Words ending in a, retain the a and add e:

Vertebra – Vertebrae – backbones.

Bursa – Bursae- Sacs or fluid near a joint.

Words ending in IS, drop the IS and added es:

Diagnosis – Diagnoses

Psychosis – Psychoses Abnormal conditions of the mind.

Words ending in ex or ix, drop the ex or ix and add ices:

Apex – Apices Pointed ends of organs

Cortex – Cortices Outer parts of the organs

Varix — Varices Enlarged, swollen veins.

Words ending in on, drop the on and added a:

Ganglion — Ganglia Group of the nerve cells, benign cysts near a joint.

Words ending in us, drop the us and added I

Bronchus — Bronchi

Calculus – Calculi.

Exceptions to this rule are viruses and sinuses.


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