Comparatively: Incidences, Mortality Rate, Diagnosis, and Prognosis

The second leading cause of death, cancer is a term used to describe a disease in which abnormal cells divide without control and capable of invading nearby tissues as reported by the National Cancer Institute or NCI (n.d.). The second most common cancer in women, breast cancer is the formulation of tumors resulting from rapidly growing cells within the breast. For women, mammograms can detect such cancers early and before they spread. The average risk of a woman developing breast cancer within the United States is 12% or a 1 in 8 chance (American Cancer Society, 2018). Male breast cancer is a rare subtype accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancer (NCI, n.d.). Commonalities exists in the risk factors for both men and women and include family history and the aging factor, the average presentation for women being 61 and men ages 60-70 although it can develop at any age (Shapiro, 2018). Incidences of male breast cancer can sometimes be caused by higher frequencies of inherited genetic mutations thus predisposing males to breast cancer and increasing the risk for the disease (Shapiro, 2018). Comparatively, the BRCA1 and BRCA2 are inherited mutated genes in females which react similarly producing tumor suppressing genes notably increasing the risk for breast cancer (NCI, n.d).
Comparatively: Incidences, Mortality Rate, Diagnosis, and Prognosis
The incidence of locally advanced breast cancer is more common amongst men thus accounting for more than 40% of male patients being presented with advanced stages upon their initial diagnoses (Wu, et al., 2017). Approximately 7-10.9% of male patients are presented with stage IV, higher than females at 4.9-5.6% (Wu, et al., 2017). Such a diagnosis will often involve a larger tumor size and accompanied by a higher risk of lymph node involvement. The lateness in diagnosis is likely a contributing factor to the absence of screening. Stage IV diagnosis for men is indicative of a higher mortality rate thus dropping the rate of survival to 20% (NCI, n.d.). Women also have the advantage of early detection which contributes to higher survival rates (NCI, n.d.). Prognosis for both men and woman are therefore dependent upon the stage of the cancer, the type of breast cancer, estrogen-receptor and progesterone-receptor levels found within the tumor tissue, and the patient’s age and general health (NCI, n.d).
Lifestyle and Behavior Differences
Avoiding risk factors and the increase of protective factors could assist in the prevention of breast cancer for both men and women. There are, however, factors such as aging, personal history of breast cancer, inherited risks, and dense breasts, and exposure of breast tissue to estrogen made in the body that are not avoidable (NCI, n.d.). While there exist biological differences between men and women, such as hormonal levels, such hormones may attribute to health differences and may possibly account for the higher occurrences of breast cancer in women, although health related behaviors, preventative and direct, remain influential to such differences as well (Helgeson, 2017).

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