Instructions Refer to the case study information attach below (“An Older Woman Living Alone”).
Review the case study patient information in detail. “Miss E” is referred to you by a local community outreach service. The program director believes that Miss E can benefit from a nutritional assessment and possible nutritional therapy. For this Assignment, imagine that you are a clinical nutrition assistant at a private nutrition consulting firm and the supervising dietitian asked you to address the following questions in a formal way:
1. What physical changes have influenced Miss E’s food intake?
2. What are some socioeconomic or psychological changes that may be influencing her nutrition intake?
3. Could these changes be impacting her overall nutritional status?
4. Which nutrients are likely to be low in her diet? Why?
5. What are your general concerns about her physical condition? What are the implications of her recent weight loss? Are there any particular nutrients she may be deficient or low in?
6. How have her dietary practices and choices impacted her nutrition and health status? (Be specific.)
7. What are your nutrition recommendations? (Include estimated calorie needs, protein needs, menu changes, the recommendation — or not — of an oral supplement, e.g., a vitamin/mineral or oral drink nutrition supplement.)
· Organize your answers to the above questions into a 3-page essay (estimated word count of essay should be around 750 words). You may include a sample menu if needed. Include a minimum of three APA-style references.
Adult Stages: Older Adult (65 to 85 Years)
Aging in America
The first of the baby boomer generation born between 1946 and 1964 is reaching age 65 and many are facing economic uncertainty and spiraling health care costs. As the older population grows, their personal, social, and health care needs will be felt in all our lives. The young and middle-age adults that we discussed earlier in this chapter will comprise the older population of 2050 and beyond.
Following are some personal characteristics of the older population and their potential impact on health and nutrition services:
• Increase in life expectancy : Life expectancy is a general measure of the overall health of a population.40 Over the past century, life expectancy at birth rose significantly based on improved sanitation, the discovery of antibiotics, and higher standards of living (Figure 13-4). Better prevention and treatment of heart disease, cancer, and stroke, the most common causes of death in older adults, has contributed to longer life expectancies. Sixty-five-year-olds can expect to live another 19 years, and 85-year-olds another 6 to 7 years.40 Those 85 and older are the fastest growing age cohort in the United States and will double in number over the next 25 years.
FIGURE 13-4 Life expectancy is increasing among older adults. Men age 65 can expect to live 17 more years and women age 65 can expect to live 20 more years. At age 85, older adults can expect to live another 6 to 7 years. (Data from Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics: Older Americans 2012: key indicators of well-being, Washington, D.C., 2012, U.S. Government Printing Office.)
• Ethnic and racial diversity: Currently, 80% of the population above age 64 is Caucasian, but this will change. By 2050, 42% of the older U.S. population will be Asian, Hispanic, or African American (Figure 13-5).40 Nutrition education programs and meal services will need to adjust to different customs, food patterns, and family roles. Growing diversity is also promoting greater interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). (See the Focus on Culture box, “Cultural and Ethnic Differences in Health Practices” for related discussion.)
FIGURE 13-5 Percent of persons ages 65 and older according to race and ethnic group. The older population will continue to become more diverse in the coming years. (Data from Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics: Older Americans 2012: key indicators of well-being, Washington, D.C., 2012, U.S. Government Printing Office.)