Psychological assessment guides are created by psychology professionals to provide the public with accurate and authoritative information appropriate for their current needs.

Information available to the public about psychological testing and assessment varies widely depending on the professional creating it, the purpose of the assessment, and the intended audience. When professionals effectively educate the public on the howwhat, and why behind assessments and the strengths and limitations of commonly used instruments, potential clients are in a better position to be informed users of assessment products and services. The Assessment Guides developed in this course will be designed to provide the lay public with accurate and culturally relevant information to aid them in making informed decisions about psychological testing. Students will develop their Guides with the goal of educating readers to be informed participants in the assessment process.

There is no required template for the development of the Assessment Guide. Students are encouraged to be creative while maintaining the professional appearance of their work. The Guide must be reader-friendly (sixth- to ninth-grade reading level) and easy to navigate, and it must include a combination of text, images, and graphics to engage readers in the information provided. Throughout their Guides, students will provide useful examples and definitions as well as questions readers should ask their practitioners. To ensure accuracy, students are expected to use only scholarly and peer-reviewed sources for the information in the development of their Guides.

Students will begin their Guides with a general overview of assessment, reasons for assessment referrals, and the importance of the role of each individual in the process. Within each of the remaining sections, students will describe the types of assessments that their readers may encounter, the purposes of each type of assessment, the different skills and abilities the instruments measure, the most valid and reliable uses of the measures, and limitations of the measures. A brief section will be included to describe the assessment process, the types of professionals who conduct the assessments, and what to expect during the assessment meetings.

The Assessment Guide must include the following sections:

Table of Contents (Portrait orientation must be used for the page layout of this section.)
In this one-page section, students must list the following subsections and categories of assessments.

  • Introduction and Overview
  • Tests of Intelligence
  • Tests of Achievement
  • Tests of Ability
  • Neuropsychological Testing
  • Personality Testing
  • Industrial, Occupational, and Career Assessment
  • Forensic Assessment
  • Special Topics (student’s choice)
  • References

Section 1: Introduction and Overview (Portrait or landscape orientation may be used for the page layout of this section.)
Students will begin their Guides with a general overview of assessment. In this two-page section, students will briefly address the major aspects of the assessment process. Students are encouraged to develop creative titles for these topics that effectively communicate the meanings to the intended audience.

  • Definition of a Test (e.g., What is a Test?)
  • Briefly define psychological assessment.
  • Types of Tests
  • Identify the major categories of psychological assessment.
  • Reliability and Validity
  • Briefly define the concepts of reliability and validity as they apply to psychological assessment.
  • Role of testing and assessment in the diagnostic process
  • Briefly explain role of assessment in diagnosis.
  • Professionals Who Administer Tests
  • Briefly describe the types of professionals involved in various assessment processes.
  • Culture and Testing
  • Briefly describe issues of cultural diversity as it applies to psychological assessment.

Categories of Assessment (Portrait or landscape orientation may be used for the page layout of this section.)
For each of the following, students will create a two-page information sheet or pamphlet to be included in the Assessment Guide. For each category of assessment, students will include the required content listed in the PSY640 Content for Testing Pamphlets and Information Sheets (Links to an external site.). Be sure to reference the content requirements (Links to an external site.) prior to completing each of the information sheets on the following categories of assessment.

  • Tests of Intelligence
  • Tests of Achievement
  • Tests of Ability
  • Neuropsychological Testing
  • Personality Testing
  • Industrial, Occupational, and Career Assessment
  • Forensic Assessment
  • Special Topics (Students will specify which topic they selected for this pamphlet or information sheet. Additional instructions are noted below.)

Special Topics (Student’s Choice)
In addition to the required seven categories of assessment listed above, students will develop an eighth information sheet or pamphlet that includes information targeted either at a specific population or about a specific issue related to psychological assessment not covered in one of the previous sections. Students may choose from one of the following categories:

  • Testing Preschool-Aged Children
  • Testing Elementary School-Aged Children
  • Testing Adolescents
  • Testing Geriatric Patients
  • Testing First Generation Immigrants
  • Testing in Rural Communities
  • Testing English Language Learners
  • Testing Individuals Who Are (Select one: Deaf, Blind, Quadriplegic)
  • Testing Individuals Who Are Incarcerated
  • Testing for Competency to Stand Trial
  • Testing in Child Custody Cases

References (Portrait orientation must be used for the page layout of this section.)
Include a separate reference section that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)The reference list must consist entirely of scholarly sources. For the purposes of this assignment, assessment manuals, the course textbook, chapters from graduate-level textbooks, chapters from professional books, and peer-reviewed journal articles may be used as resource material. A minimum of 16 unique scholarly sources including a minimum of 12 peer-reviewed articles published within the last 10 years from the Ashford University Library must be used within the Assessment Guide. The bulleted list of credible professional and/or educational online resources required for each assessment area will not count toward these totals.

Attention Students: The Masters of Arts in Psychology program is utilizing the Pathbrite portfolio tool as a repository for student scholarly work in the form of signature assignments completed within the program. After receiving feedback for this Assessment Guide, please implement any changes recommended by the instructor, go to Pathbrite  (Links to an external site.)and upload the revised Assessment Guide to the portfolio. (Use the Pathbrite Quick-Start Guide (Links to an external site.) to create an account if you do not already have one.) The upload of signature assignments will take place after completing each course. Be certain to upload revised signature assignments throughout the program as the portfolio and its contents will be used in other courses and may be used by individual students as a professional resource tool. See the Pathbrite (Links to an external site.) website for information and further instructions on using this portfolio tool.

The Assessment Guide

  • Must be 18 pages in length (not including title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.).
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
    • Title of guide
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must use at least 16 scholarly sources, including a minimum of 12 peer-reviewed articles from the Ashford University Library.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate reference page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must incorporate at least three different methods of presenting information (e.g., text, graphics, images, original cartoons).Assessment Guide to

    Psychological Testing/Assessment Guidebook

    Kathrin Jensen

    PSY 640 Psychological Testing and Assessment

    Instructor: Irene Kovacs Donaghy

    January 29th, 2018

    Table of Contents

    1. Introduction and Overview 4/5

    1.1 Definition 5

    1.2 Types of Tests, Psychological Assessment

    Definition, Major Categories 5

    1.3 Reliability and Validity 5

    1.4 Professionals Who Administer Tests and

    Professionals involved in Assessment Processes 5/6

    1.5 Culture and Testing 6

    2. Categories of Assessment 7 – 17

    2.1. Intelligence 7 -10

    2.2. Tests of Achievement 9/10

    2.3. Tests of Ability 10/11

    2.4. Neuropsychological Testing 12/13

    2.5. Personality Testing 13/14

    2.6. Industrial, Occupational, and Career Assessment 14/15

    2.7. Forensic Assessment 16/17

    3. Special Topic 17 – 20

    3.1. Testing for Competency to Stand Trial 17 – 20

    4. References 21 – 24

    1. Introduction and Overview image20.png

    1.1. Definition

    “Assessment is the systematic, ongoing process of gathering and interpreting evidence of student learning to determine if a program is meeting its learning goals and then using that information to improve the program. This overview of the assessment cycle is intended to introduce the basic steps for how to use assessment to improve your program” (Overview of Assessment, 2018, p. 1).

    The evaluation process involves six steps and a never-ending circle beginning over and over again after the last stage.

    · Period 1: Announce Mission and Goals, which is essential at the start of the assessment

    · Period 2: Identify Specific Outcomes

    Every single goal concludes a certain result providing information about students showing their best possible completion of each aim

    To best accomplish set objective only begin with one or two adding more every year thereafter

    · Period 3: Determining Practices Used to Achieve Outcomes

    Outcome of learning needs to be agreed on within any program

    “Determine what is already happening in the curriculum to help students achieve these outcomes” ” (Overview of Assessment, 2018, p. 1) by creating a road map within the earning course

    · Period 4/5: Gathering Evidence and Review & Interpret Results

    Involves data collection by exhausting various measurement features

    Using standard dimensions determine accomplishment of failure of the test

    · Period 6: Recommend Actions

    Depending on the evaluation outcome do or do not make changes to the curriculum

    image3

    · And the cycle continues…

    1.2. Types of Tests and Psychological Assessment Definition, image4.png Major Categories image5.jpg

    Within assessment there a several different tests, such as personality, forensic, or intelligence

    “Psychological testing — also called psychological assessment — is the foundation of how psychologists better understand a person and their behavior” (Framingham, 1995-2018, p. 1) involving:

    “Clinical Interview

    Assessment of Intellectual Functioning (IQ)

    Personality Assessment

    Behavioral Assessment” (Framingham, 1995-2018, p. 1)

    1.3. Reliability and Validity image6.jpg

    Reliability and Validity are essential within every assessment, because it is “the degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results. Test-retest reliability is a measure of reliability obtained by administering the same test twice over a period of time to a group of individuals” (Phelan, Wren, 2005-2006, p. 1).

    Patients referred or psychological testing are usually showing signs of mental and behavior changes, as well as problems from early age.

    1.4. Professionals Who Administer Tests and Professionals involved in Assessment Processes

    image7.jpg

    · Trained professionals within the profession

    · Psychiatrists

    · Psychologists

    · Family

    · Friends

    · Educators

    1.5. Culture and Testing

    image8 image9.jpg

    Considering diverse culture is necessary when interviewing, case preparation diagnosis, and treatment planning

    For example: “Assessment of minority patients has additional layers of complexity when compared with assessment of nonminority patients, especially when the patient has a different cultural or ethnic background from the clinician. Thus, clinicians need to develop culturally competent knowledge, attitudes, and skills. The clinician should have some knowledge of the patient’s cultural identity, and the use of a cultural consultant may be appropri­ate to avoid biases and misdiagnosis” (Lu, Lim, Mezzich, 2018, p. 1).

    Other considerations are:

    · Evaluators own cultural identity

    · Assessors attitudes

    · Investigators beliefs toward ethnic minorities

    · Test administrators should acquire certain skills in interviewing depending on the person’s background

    · Use of interpreter, if necessary

    2. Categories of Assessment

    2.1. Intelligence

    image10.jpg

    Definition:

    Intelligence is understood as “mental quality that consists of the abilities to learn from experience, adapt to new situations, understand and handle abstract concepts, and use knowledge to manipulate one’s environment” (Sternberg, n.d., p. 1).

    Various tests are used within this subject:

    · Intra-test, which “scatter has good diagnostic potentialities. Test contents may give clues to attitudes and stresses unrevealed in a formal statistical analysis” (Jastak, 1952, p. 3)

    · Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) created in 1929, which evaluates certain skills and abilities

    · Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) first published in 1049 involving 15 sub-tests finding answers, such as “giftedness, learning disability, expressive language disorder” (Gregory, 2014, 5.16 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Chi…), and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale mainly administered to individuals from various diverse and linguistic background, first began in 1905 being the oldest and most prestigious assessment using the SB5scale

    · Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), an alternative to the WISC testing began in the 1970s and goes beyond known assessment taking within 1 to 2 hours

    · “Differential Ability Scales and the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS), the K-ABC helped expand the field of intelligence testing beyond the traditional tests” (Benson, 2003, p. 1)

    · IQ test, which measures general IQ with 30 questions taking about 30 minutes in clinical setting or can be taken at home

    All of the named assessments are valid and reliable and could be administered. Thus, it is not easy to determine which one might be better than the other. Nevertheless, is depends on the individual, their background, and what need to be tested. However, the  Kaufman Assessment Battery might not be the best recommendation, since extensive “amount of training required to administer them. Proper administration of most individual intelligence tests is based upon the assumption that the examiner has an advanced degree in psychology or a related field and has received extensive supervised experience with the instruments in question” (Gregory, 2014, 5.20 Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-2 (…).

    More information about the subject of intelligence is available, see below:

    · Goldstein, S. (2013). The science of intelligence testing: Commentary on the evolving nature of interpretations of the Wechsler Scales. Journal Of Psychoeducational Assessment, 31(2), 132-137. doi:10.1177/0734282913478033 http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=1&sid=d2cd4fbc-42e6-494a-a084-356c478945c4%40sessionmgr4007&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=2013-13979-004&db=psyh

    · Nicolas, S., & Levine, Z. (2012). Beyond intelligence testing: Remembering Alfred Binet after a century. European Psychologist, 17(4), 320-325. doi:10.1027/1016-9040/a000117 http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=2&sid=d2cd4fbc-42e6-494a-a084-356c478945c4%40sessionmgr4007

    · Sternberg R. Successful intelligence: A model for testing intelligence beyond IQ tests. European Journal Of Education And Psychology [serial online]. December 1, 2015;8:76-84. Available from: ScienceDirect, Ipswich, MA. Accessed January 24, 2018. https://www-sciencedirect-com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/science/article/pii/S1888899215000070?_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_origin=gateway&_docanchor=&md5=b8429449ccfc9c30159a5f9aeaa92ffb

    2.2. Tests of Achievement

    image11.jpg

    Definition:

    “Achievement tests measure a person’s degree of learning, success, or accomplishment in a subject matter” (Gregory, 2014, 1.4 Types of Tests).

    Tests administered:

    · Binet-Simon scales incorporating “heterogeneous tasks, including word definitions, memory for designs, comprehension questions, and spatial visualization tasks” (Gregory, 2014, 1.4 Types of Tests).

    · The group intelligence tests that blossomed with such profusion during and after WWII also tested diverse abilities—witness the Army Alpha with its eight different sections measuring practical judgment, information, arithmetic, and reasoning, among other skills.

    · Modern intelligence tests also emulate this historically established pattern by sampling a wide variety of proficiencies deemed important in our culture. In general, the term intelligence test refers to a test that yields an overall summary score based on results from a heterogeneous sample of items. Of course, such a test might also provide a profile of subtest scores as well, but it is the overall score that generally attracts the most attention.

    All of these tests are part of achievement assessment. Nonetheless, the Binet-Simon scales are not always the best choice, because “the Binet-Simon Scale falsely assumes that the mental development of all individuals proceeds by similar stages” (Freeman, 1917, p. 1).

    More information about the subject of intelligence is available, see below:

    · A Standardized Binet-Simon Scale. (1921). The British Medical Journal, (3153), 817.

    https://search-proquest-com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/results/B0453E2795F34AA9PQ/1?accountid=32521

    · Brigham, C. C. (1914). An experimental critique of the Binet-Simon scale. Journal Of Educational Psychology, 5(8), 439-448. doi:10.1037/h0071183

    http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=9b1c96ff-5ee7-4f40-97b2-9e97e3e79649%40sessionmgr104

    · Freeman, F. N. (1917). A critique of the Yerkes-Bridges Hardwick comparison of the Binet-Simon and Point scales. Psychological Review, 24(6), 484-490. doi:10.1037/h0071324

    http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=7eb967ba-dc12-4cc4-955d-9894bae2f1e2%40pdc-v-sessmgr01

    2.3. Tests of Ability

    image12.png

    Definition:

    These assessment are used to evaluate hwo individuals normally do within the work environment completing various taks and how to adopt to changing situations.

    Tests administered:

    · Intelligence (IQ or GMA)

    · Numerical reasoning

    · Verbal reasoning

    · Verbal comprehension

    · Critical thinking

    · Abstract reasoning

    · Diagramming

    All these assesment are normed, inate, timed, as well as standadized offering conclusions, like:

    · “How intelligent are they?”

    · “Do they have the specific abilities required to do the job?”

    · “Are they a quick learner?”

    · “Can they handle the numbers side of the role?”

    · “Can they think strategically about problems?” (Registered Psychologists, n.d., p. 1)

    These tests are supposed to be administerd supervised. Nevertheless, some are available online now.

    In clonclusion, the Intelligence (IQ or GMA) , because various research offers information about this assessment having “the greatest predictive validity for on the job performance of all the selection methods. Schmidt (2011) also showed that the predictive validity of GMA (IQ) tests for on the job performance was higher than that of specific aptitude tests” (Registered Psychologists, n.d., p. 1)

    More information about the subject of intelligence is available, see below:

    · Kadir, A., Ardi, M., Nurhayati, B., & Dirawan, G. D. (2016). Effect of Formative and Ability Test Results on Early Learning of Students. International Education Studies, 9(7), 112-118.

    http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=1&sid=9cd7767a-e2d7-4d6a-8392-1e0d4fac1d12%40sessionmgr4008&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=EJ1106540&db=eric

    · Morrisby. (2017). Educational & Industrial Test Services Limited Registered in England and Wales. Ability Tests Retrieved from:

    https://www.morrisby.com/Ability-Tests/

    · a&dc. ( 2018). Verbal, Non-Verbal and Numerical Reasoning Tests. Retrieved from:

    https://www.adc.uk.com/assessment/consultancy/ability-tests/

    2.4. Neuropsychological Testing

    image13.jpg

    Definition:

    “Measure cognitive, sensory, perceptual, and motor performance to determine the extent, locus, and behavioral consequences of brain damage” (Gregory, 2014, 1.4 Types of Tests).

    Tests administered:

    · Tests for attention span and memory.

    · Tests for language and speech skills.

    · Test for reasoning, planning, and organizing skills

    These tests often take for hours, because this assessment is meant to take people to their limits. Thus, people being evaluated with this test might get tired or afraid. Results can take weeks, but eventually will proof knowledge about thinking, memory, and reasoning. The biggest disadvantage of this assessment: Very expensive, cost often $ 1000

    · Mental Health Assessement offering information about a person’s overall emotional state by asking questions and doing a physical exam about gattering information about “our mood, behavior, thinking, reasoning, and memory, and how well you can express yourself” (WebMD, 2005 – 2018, p. 1)

    More about the subject of intelligence is available, see below:

    · No Author. (2018). Neuro Assessment & Development Center. Neuropsychological Assessment

    https://www.neurodevelop.com/neuropsychological_testing

    · Peterson, T. (2015). BeyondBookSmart. Neuropsychological Testing: What is it and when is It needed?

    https://www.beyondbooksmart.com/executive-functioning-strategies-blog/neuropsychological-testing-what-is-it-and-when-is-it-needed

    · No Author. (2016). University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine. Neuropsychological Evaluation FAQ

    https://www.med.unc.edu/neurology/divisions/movement-disorders/npsycheval

    2.5. Personality Testing

    image14.jpg

    Definition:

    “Measure the traits, qualities, or behaviors that determine a person’s individuality; such tests include checklists, inventories, and projective techniques” (Gregory, 2014, 1.4 Types of Tests).

    Tests administered:

    Just as with any other assessment the personality can be investigated in various ways.

    · Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) originated in the 1940s, which offers insight into types of philosophies available to society involving sixteen different evaluations furnished as time tables. This test is an easy to take questionnaire.

    · “The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is used to measure abnormal or deviant behavior and is known as being best used in court settings as a clinical instrument” (Maddalena, 2013, p. 1). This test has self-administered 567 t/f items evaluating individual’s state using 9 different validity scales.

    · The California Psychological Inventory (CPI): With “434 items, the CPI instrument provides unmatched validity and reliability as a dynamic and objective measure of personality and behavior. The complete collection of tools includes narrative reports; comparative profiles based on both gender-specific and combined male/female norms; and a comprehensive tool kit of in-depth case studies and reproducible masters that demonstrate how the CPI assessment can be used in any business or organizational setting” (PSYCHOMETRICS CANADA LTD, 2015, p. 1).

    · The Dominance, Influence, Steadiness and Conscientiousness Test (DISC) first published in 1928 is a very easy tool taking about 5 minutes with “40 statements, for each indicating how much you agree on a five point scale” (Rosenberg, Silver, 2013, p. 1) mainly exhausted for employment intention.

    In conclusion the most well-known and best feature to measure personality is the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), which is administered about 2 million times within one year. In an article it is stated that “the best reason to choose the MBTI instrument to discover your personality type is that hundreds of studies over the past 40 years have proven the instrument to be both valid and reliable” (MBTI® Basics, n.d., p. 1).

    More information about the subject of intelligence is available, see below:

    · Piotrowski, C. (2017). Neuropsychological testing in professional psychology specialties: Summary findings of 36 studies (1990-2016) in applied settings. Journal Of The Indian Academy Of Applied Psychology, 43(1), 134-144.

    https://search-proquest-com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/docview/1874354243?accountid=32521

    · Coetzer R. ECT, cognitive function and neuropsychological testing. The British Journal Of Psychiatry [serial online]. July 2016;209(1):84. Available from: PsycINFO, Ipswich, MA. Accessed January 24, 2018.

    https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry/article/ect-cognitive-function-and-neuropsychological-testing/3F6BECC94D76787C21F8B410B3DD800A

    · Smith, P. J., Need, A. C., Cirulli, E. T., Chiba-Falek, O., & Attix, D. K. (2013). A comparison of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) with “traditional” neuropsychological testing instruments. Journal Of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology, 35(3), 319-328. doi:10.1080/13803395.2013.771618

    http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=26ee234d-3a03-4f57-a4b6-ae8377a72464%40sessionmgr4008

    2.6. Industrial, Occupational, and Career Assessment

    image15.jpg

    Definition:

    These assessments are better known as career testing and is understood as “the process of gathering information that is used to better understand a client and his or her educational or career situation” (Career Assessment, n.d., p. 1).

    Tests administered:

    · Career Assessment Tools, Techniques, Models, for example Wonderlic Personnel Test used mostly with computer or paper and pencil invovling 50 questions taking about twenty minutes (12 test, 8 administrative work) finding proof about cognitive abilities.

    · Career Assessment Surveys, Scales, Questionnaires, such as the Kuder Career Assessments from 1939 snd revised in 1943 including within three sections “10 interest scales and provided test takers with scores that indicate their similarities to 100 occupations and 40 college careers” (Kuder Career Assessments, n.d., p. 1).

    More test can be find under the Career Assessment Inventories and Career Assessment Tests.

    Any of the above nemaed tests are great for this type of evaluation, because “the quality of measures in career assessment is as good as any area of psychological assessment” (Career Assessment, n.d., p. 1), ofr instance.

    More information about the subject of intelligence is available, see below:

    · Conlan, C. (2018). Moster. 10 awesome free career self-assessment tools on the Internet Retrieved from:

    https://www.monster.com/career-advice/article/best-free-career-assessment-tools

    · U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration. (2006). TESTING AND ASSESSMENT: A GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES FOR WORKFORCE INVESTMENT PROFESSIONALS Retrieved from:

    https://www.onetcenter.org/dl_files/proTestAsse.pdf

    · No Author. (n.d.). Career Research. Career Assessment. Retrieved from:

    http://career.iresearchnet.com/career-assessment/

    2.7. Forensic Assessment

    image16.jpg

    Definition:

    “Distinct from that of traditional therapeutic assessment, and as such forensic evaluators have different training and practice guidelines. The settings in which forensic evaluations occur are vast, including law enforcement, correctional, and civil and criminal court settings. Forensic assessment may include traditional psychological assessments and specially designed forensic measures” (Forensic Assessment, n.d., p. 1).

    Tests administered:

    · Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) The WAIS-III, first arrived in 1997 testing intelligence and abilities provided as a IQ test, and matters, such as “a person’s capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment” (Shapse, n.d., p. 1), this assessment can be taken at home in only 6 minutes answering 25 questions, also, disabilities in childrens and adults can bediagnosed with this tool

    · Rorschach Ink Blot Test is “an open-structured, performance-based cognitive perceptual problem-solving task.” (Shapse, n.d., p. 1) offering information about “individual’s basic psychological processes such as impulse control, stress tolerance, reality testing, imagination, cognitive style, adaptive techniques and interpersonal relationships” (Shapse, n.d., p. 1).

    · Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) The MMPI-2 is “assesses personality traits and psychopathology” (Framingham,1995-2018, p. 1) within people possibly dealing with mental illness or clinical problems. This test can be taken at home, since being self-administered invovling 567 T/F questions scoring within “a number of validity scales, 10 primary clinical scales and a host of content and symptom scales” (Shapse, n.d., p. 1).

    Every of the above mentioned tests are great features within the field of forensic assessment. Nonetheless, the Rorschach Ink Blot Test might be the best possible evaluation, because this test “unlike self-report measures, it is difficult to fake. Despite recent controversies, the Rorschach possesses reliability and validity similar to other generally accepted personality instruments” (Shapse, n.d., p. 1).

    More information about the subject of intelligence is available, see below:

    · Graham D. Glancy, Peter Ash, Erica PJ Bath, Alec Buchanan, Paul Fedoroff, Richard L. Frierson, Victoria L. Harris, Susan J. Hatters Friedman, Mark J. Hauser, James Knoll, Mike Norko, Debra Pinals, Marilyn Price, Patricia Recupero, Charles L. Scott and Howard V. Zonana. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online June 2015, 43 (2 Supplement) S3-S53;

    http://jaapl.org/content/43/2_Supplement/S3

    · Otto, R. K. (2010). Wiley Online Library. Forensic Assessment Instruments and Techniques Retrieved from:

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0366/abstract?systemMessage=Please+be+advised+that+we+experienced+an+unexpected+issue+that+occurred+on+Saturday+and+Sunday+January+20th+and+21st+that+caused+the+site+to+be+down+for+an+extended+period+of+time+and+affected+the+ability+of+users+to+access+content+on+Wiley+Online+Library.+This+issue+has+now+been+fully+resolved.++We+apologize+for+any+inconvenience+this+may+have+caused+and+are+working+to+ensure+that+we+can+alert+you+immediately+of+any+unplanned+periods+of+downtime+or+disruption+in+the+future.

    · Dror, I. E., & Murrie, D. C. (2017). A Hierarchy of Expert Performance Applied to Forensic Psychological Assessments. Psychology, Public Policy, And Law, doi:10.1037/law0000140

    http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=b7b981e7-1b1f-416e-bcdd-236ceef406d5%40sessionmgr4006

    3. Special Topic

    3.1. Testing for Competency to Stand Trial

    image17.jpg

    Competency to stand trial testing is a huge part of the law enforcement department, because the outcome will determine on how to proceed with a person being accused of a crime. Thus, it is important that the “evaluation structure is more important than commonly assumed for forensic practice and may help to inform the clinical practices of evaluators” (Chauhan, Warren, Kois, Wellbeloved-Stone, 2015, p. 1). Interesting about this matter how is it takes society back in history. Actually, in a editorial it is acknowledged that competency tests to stand trial go back “to English common law during the time of Edward I in the fourteenth century” (Pirelli, Zapf, Gottdiene, 2011, p. 1). In the U.S. this policy goes back to the 19th Century. Also, since the 60s about 200 studies were accomplished and 22 competency evaluation tools created.

    When filing for a notion about competency to stand trial many matters need to be considered, because otherwise the request will be denied by the court. For example: In an article written by Michaelsen, Kapoor in 2015 it is stated that the “trial court’s decision to deny the defendant’s motions for a competency evaluation and assistance of a mental health expert at trial, because they were based solely on the attorney’s description of the defendant, without medical records or court observation of disorganized behavior” (Michaelsen, Kapoor, 2015, p. 1). Thus, the burden of proof in court is essential to be offered a competency assessment. More so, it is necessary for a client provide evidence that a “competency hearing ‘does not offend some principle of justice so rooted in the traditions of our people to be ranked as fundamental” (Chang, Chamberlain, 2013, p. 1), just as stated within the case People v. Ary, 246 P.3d 322, or example.

    Tests administered:

    Just as anywhere else, which might needs to be evaluated competency to stand trial is not different. There are several assessments, such as:

    · Georgia Court Competency Test-Mississippi Version Revised (GCCT-MSH)

    · Competency Screening Test (CST)

    · Texas Competency Instrument

    Both evaluations are exhausted for initial assessing to stand trial of the defendant. If anybody wonders about outside factors possibly influencing the outcome, such as age, race, or suggests that sociodemographic variables, consider this: “This finding suggests that sociodemographic variables do not improve the prediction of competency over clinical variables alone” (Ustad, Rogers, Sewell, Guarnaccia, 1996, p. 15). Altogether however, “This function suggests that the presence of a severe mental disorder in combination with a low IQ is predictive of incompetency. This function has little clinical utility since it is likely that the majority of defendants involved in a competency restoration program will meet these requirements ” (Ustad, Rogers, Sewell, Guarnaccia, 1996, p. 15).

    The best outcome can be predicted by using the GCCT-incompetency. On the other hand, not to exhaust to provide evidence whether or not a client can stand trial because of being competent or not is the SCL-90-R measure, because it “was not an effective predictor of competency status” (Ustad, Rogers, Sewell, Guarnaccia, 1996, p. 1), as mentioned in an editorial by Karen L. Ustad, a., Richard Rogers, a., Kenneth W. Sewell, a., & Charles A. Guarnaccia, although, some people are still suing this method.

    Summary:

    This policy goes back to the ancient time, and is a part of any defendant as “a requirement of the criminal justice system because it reflects interests related to the dignity of the process, the accuracy of adjudication, and respect for the autonomy of defendants” (Hoge, 2016, p. 1).

    In the U.S. “legal decisions have established the contours of the requirements related to competent participation in adjudication” (Hoge, 2016, p. 1), and about 60,000 individuals are referred to get this testing done yearly.

    Who can administer the assessment?

    · Forensic psychiatrists

    · Professional Clinicians

    · Trained professional within the field psychology or forensics

    What is the main portion of the test?

    Focusing on the defendant’s ability to understand questions, which are connected to the crime assisting attorney and decision-making process.

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