Psycology – Case Study – 2 Pages

Major : Health, Physical Education and Exercise Science

Course Name : Psychology of Physical Activity

Topic : Subject : Intervention assignment

Format : APA

Pages: 2 Pages

References: Scholar articles

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Physical Activity Interventions

Chapter 6

Why use intervention strategies?

Intervention strategies based on a sound theoretical framework

offer the greatest potential for

altering physical activity behavior

Interventions may not directly change behavior, but they can modify one or more PA determinants (which can, in turn, increase PA)

2

PA Intervention Approaches

Change knowledge and attitudes about benefits of and opportunities for PA

Informational Approaches

Teaches behavioral management skills needed for adoption and maintenance

Behavioral Approaches

Creating social environments to facilitate and enhance behavior change

Social Approaches

Change structure of physical and organizational environment to provide safe, attractive and convenient places for PA

Environmental and policy approaches

Behavioral Approaches

Teach BEHAVIORAL SKILLS to adopt and adhere to an exercise regimen

Techniques taught through some form of counseling intervention

Behavioral Skills

Recognize/manage situations that can sabotage progress

Recognize cues and opportunities for PA

Develop strategies to maintain PA levels

Develop strategies to prevent relapse

Behavioral Interventions

5

Behavioral Technique: The Exercise Contract

Assess current level of fitness

Create SMART Goal

Detail actions to achieve goal

Action Planning

Determine fitness level: Fitness assessment

Quantify exercise goal:

Write SMART goal, short term goals

Action Plan:

Use FITT Principle; implementation intentions

Track Progress: Self-Monitoring & Self reinforcement.

Relapse Prevention: Avoiding abstinence violation effect

Why is setting a goal so important?

Motivational Tool

A clear target

Feedback

↑self-efficacy

Roadmap

Step by step guidance

Clarifies expectations

Provider-Client understanding

Potential benefits and risks of goal setting

Consider your approach…

Benefits

Enhances focus and concentration

Risks

Goal setting might create a ceiling on performance

Boosts self-confidence

Helps prevent or manage stress

Creates a positive mental attitude

Increase intrinsic motivation to excel

Improve the quality of practice by making training more challenging

Enhance playing skill, techniques, and strategies

Improve overall performance

Fixation on goals may encourage shortcuts or drastic measures to get there

E.g. Client with weight loss goals fasts for 2 days before evaluation day

Goals can take the fun out of fitness

If this is true, you need to re-evaluate program

Stay away from “no pain no gain” principle

Every moment of exercising does not have to include monitoring, evaluation of whether or not goals are getting met, etc.

I am going to lose weight.

I will lose 10 pounds by December so that I can fit in my cocktail dress.

10

Potential failures in goal setting

Goals should be challenging, yet realistic to accomplish and as specific as possible

If not challenging enough, may offer insufficient reward to “make it worth it”

11

Not setting specific goals

No performance or process goals

Too many goals

Failure to acknowledge individual differences

Not providing follow up or evaluation

Action Plan

Concrete plans that specify when, where, and how a person will translate

exercise intentions into

action

e.g. Exercise Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays for 30 minutes at moderate intensity at the campus gym, at 12:30 after I eat lunch.

https://www.verywellfit.com/f-i-t-t-principle-what-you-need-for-great-workouts-1231593

Self-Monitoring

Paying attentions to thoughts/feelings/behaviors then gauging against standard

Examples:

Rating of Perceived Exertion

Exercise logs

Track weight changes

GPS tracking

My Fitness Pal app

Runkeeper app

Fitbit

Awareness can modify behavior!!

Try to receive feedback regarding progress toward goal

13

Relapse

High risk situations can trigger relapse

Injury, vacation, finals week, bad weather, boredom,

tired, distractions

Relapse: when an individual fails to resume regular exercise following a lapse in activity

15

High Risk Situation

Negative Coping Response

Positive Coping Response

Increased self-efficacy

Decreased probability of relapse

Decreased self-efficacy

Initial exercise relapse

Abstinence violation effect

Increased probability of relapse

Abstinence

violation effect

All hope is lost  All or nothing approach to exercise

Accompanied by negative emotional response

Feelings of guilt or shame, and self-attributions for failure (self-blame)

Positive Coping

Strategies

helps an individual be less likely to have exercise lapses and have greater self-efficacy

Cognitive

Strategies

Statements we make about ourselves which can be used to increase confidence, regulate arousal, and focus effort in order to overcome high-situations

E.g. “I shouldn’t skip the gym, I will study better after I go for a run”

1. Self Talk.

Seeing and feeling an experience in one’s mind.

E.g. get psyched up for work out class by visualizing how fun it is, plus how energized and refreshed you are post workout.

E.g. imagine how exciting it will be to reach long term goal

2. Visualization.

Positive Coping Strategies

Behavioral coping strategies

Developing and implementing overt plans to manage high risk situations

Examples?

Vacation

Weather

Work/School demands

Injury

.

Behavioral Interventions

Effectiveness?

Most effective strategy to increase PA.

Nearly 5 times more effective than other types of intervention (Dishman & Buckworth, 1996)

35% ↑ in time spent being physically active (Kahn et al. 2002)

Nearly 65% ↑ in energy expenditure (Kahn et al. 2002)

Behavioral Interventions

Drawbacks?

Not innately known strategies- must be taught.

Success depends on availability of resources

Huge number of people inactive!

Informational Interventions

Informational Interventions

Change knowledge and attitudes about benefits of and opportunities for physical activity

Objectives:

Provide info about benefits of PA

Arouse fear or concern about risks of inactivity

Increase awareness of opportunities

reach large #s of people

Explain techniques for overcoming barriers to activity

Provide strategies to overcome negative attitudes towards PA

Mass Media campaigns

Non-direct contact

Internet, commercials, PSAs, pamphlets

Effectiveness in changing people’s attitudes?

Mixed success (recall of information?)

What are their drawbacks?

$$$

May not reach target audience

May send wrong message

Examples:

Health risk appraisals (free community screenings)

Fitness appraisals

Physician counseling

Community health & wellness fairs

https://www.eatsmartmovemorenc.com/ProgramsNTools/ProgramsNTools.html

Interventions that engage community members and organizations in the development and delivery of information and strategies to increase PA

Community-Wide Campaigns

24

Community-wide Campaigns

Effectiveness?

Effective for increasing the percentage of people who are active

Energy expenditure

Amount of active time

Drawbacks?

Dependent on:

Careful planning & coordination

Well-trained staff

Sufficient Resources

Extent to which key community members “buy into”/support the intervention

Point-of-Decision Prompts

Signs placed at points where people must choose between a sedentary or active option

Effectiveness?

Increase stair use by 54% in men and women

(Kahn et al., 2002)

Drawbacks?

Only effective as long as posted.

After a couple weeks of being removed, stair use goes back to normal

26

Tailor the message – Cultural tailoring

“Gain-frame” the message

Emphasize specific PA benefits

Don’t focus on risk of not being PA

Can modify attitudes (TPB/TRA)

Increase motives (SDT)

Increase “pros” (TTM)

Enhance self-efficacy/perceived control (SET/TPB)

Provide simple “how to” information

Focus on why they should be active and how they can become more active

Tips for Effective Informational Interventions

27

Social Approaches

Social Approaches

Insert the title of your subtitle Here

Structure people’s social

environments to help

support physical activity

endeavors.

Create new

social networks and

strengthen existing networks to ensure that people have

the necessary support.

Objective:

Face to face approaches

Mediated approaches

Types

FACE to FACE Approaches

People are often more motivated when exercising with other people than alone

Exercise Groups

Group Support System

Buddy Systems

Mediated

Approaches

Telephone and email support

systems

Calls from exercise counselor or interventionist

Provides informational and emotional support

Email may be more effective for younger population

Social Networking

E.g. Fitbit app, MapMyRun, PACT, RVA Runners, Facebook, etc.

Effectiveness

Social approaches often combined with behavioral and informational, so it is difficult to study separately.

Obese individuals benefited more from interventions with social approaches than healthy weight counterparts

Drawbacks

Contingent on the cooperation of group members or significant others

Must like each other/get along

Must work together

e.g. Active Winners program

Rival neighborhoods

Distruptions impeded delivery and deterred participation

Environmental Approaches

Environment & Policy Approaches

Policy (e.g. school)

Built environment

Social/cultural factors

Urban Planning

Ensure new neighborhoods are built with characteristics that promote physical activity

Sidewalks

Green spaces

Grid lay outs

Transportation

Create policies to promote non-motorized transport

Example: Bike sharing programs

RICHMOND! Denver, NYC, Philadelphia, D.C, Toronto, etc

37

Increase number of weekly PE classes

Add new classes to appeal to kids

Lengthen duration of existing PE classes

Increase time spent being active during PE classes

Effectiveness? Very

Drawbacks? Funding

Modify

School-Based PE

Make sure the classes/activities are non-competitive, fitness-enhancing, and non-exclusive

38

Access to Facilities

Build new facilities

Enhance access to existing facilities

Communities

Cities

Workplaces

Schools

39

Effectiveness?

25% increase in proportion of people who exercise 3x per week

Interventions result in weight loss and decreases in body fat

Relative impact of increased access is unclear

Drawbacks?

Cost – time and resource consuming

No guarantee it will increase activity

Will depend on the other interventions

PA Interventions In the Real World

Interventions in a research setting may not directly translate to the “real world”

Why??

Study participants may be different from the general population

Research staff may have more time, expertise, and training in how to best deliver the intervention

Some interventions just aren’t feasible in the real world

RE-AIM Framework

Developed in 1999 to help evaluate interventions in real-world settings:

Reach: the percentage of people from a given population who participate in the intervention (and characteristics of these people)

Effectiveness: the positive/negative consequences experienced by participants

Adoption: proportions and representiveness (number/types of communities/settings that adopt an intervention) that adopt the intervention

Implementation: how well the intervention is delivered in the real world

Maintenance: extent to which the intervention is sustained over time

How about the “fun theory”?

Can we encourage people to take the stairs instead of the elevator through built environment

interventions?

Conclusion

Four approaches to determining PA in interventions:

Behavioral

Goal setting (S.M.A.R.T.)

Relapse and coping strategies

Informational

Media/outreach campaigns

Tailor to your audience

Focus on benefits of activity, not risks of inactivity

Social

Exercise groups, buddy system, group support

Mediated approaches (apps, texting alerts)

Environmental/Policy

Built environment, PA in schools, PA facilities

Physical Activity Interventions in the “real world”

RE-AIM

 
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