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DEP2100 Exam 3 (25 points)

1. This area of the brain begins to develop in early childhood and is the last to fully develop. It is responsible for a child’s judgment and the ability to regulate their emotions (inhibition).

a. hippocampus

b. amygdala

c. prefrontal cortex

d. temporal lobe

2. Which of the following is a likely cause of rising obesity rates in the U.S.?

a. Barriers to physical activity, including transportation, expenses, and time restraints

b. Availability and costs of unhealthy fast foods

c. Growing interests in sedentary lifestyles

d. All of the above

3. The development of specific skills in which new synapses form to code the experience are called:

a. experience-expectant

b. experience-dependent

c. myelination

d. synaptic pruning

4. Which of the following skills would NOT be considered experience-expectant?

a. language acquisition

b. walking

c. jumping

d. playing an instrument

5. Early scientists, such as Sigmund Freud, believed that infants are unable to remember anything before the age of 3 years, but newer research suggests that children of all ages remember just what they need to remember. This notion is referred to as:

a. depth perception

b. object permanence

c. self-awareness

d. infantile amnesia

6. In childhood, boys are generally better at motor skills in comparison to girls.

a. fine

b. gross

c. intricate

d. finite

7. Which of the following is a common cause of death in early childhood?

a. Drowning


c. Cancer

d. All of the above

8. Which of the following is a warning sign that a child may be being abused?

a. Extreme behavior

b. Fear of adults or care providers

c. Nightmares

d. All of the above

9. According to Piaget, this developmental stage is characterized as a time of symbolic function, thinking beyond the present into the future, and developing language at a very rapid rate.

a. Sensorimotor Stage

b. Preoperational Stage

c. Concrete Operations

d. Formal Operations

10. You have two balls of clay that are of equal size. You give one to Jeff and roll the other into a hotdog shape. Jeff cries, “That’s not fair, you have more than me!” What stage of Piaget’s developmental thinking is Jeff demonstrating?

a. preoperational

b. transitional

c. concrete operational

d. formal operational

11. The Piagetian characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child focuses on one idea, excluding all others is called:

a. assimilation

b. accommodation

c. animism

d. centration

12. When Mrs. Lopez asked her 4-year-old classroom, “Who can lift this table?” all the preschoolers raised their hands with excitement. This is because:

a. preschool children have an exaggerated sense of self-confidence due to inexperience with failure

b. preschool children tend to over-estimate their abilities

c. of egocentrism

d. All of the above

13. Giulianna (3-years-old) started to cry while watching her parents’ wedding video because she wanted to know why she was not invited. Her parents tried to explain to her that she was not born yet, but she had difficulty understanding this concept. This is due to:

a. conservation

b. static reasoning

c. irreversibility

d. animism

14. Which of the following is an example of limited understanding of conservation of volume during the preoperational period of development?

a. Two equal glasses of lemonade are poured into two separate cylinders, one is wider and the other taller. To a preoperational child, the taller glass has more lemonade.

b. There are two equal rows of 10 candies. One row is separated to appear longer. The preoperational child believes that the longer row has more candy.

c. A three-year-old is asked, “Which is worth more: a penny or a dime?” She answers, “A penny because it is bigger.”

d. All of the above.

15. A two-year-old bangs his knee against the table and says to the table, “Hey, say you’re sorry!” This is an example of:

a. conservation

b. static reasoning

c. irreversibility

d. animism

16. Preschoolers’ memories are often highly inaccurate because:

a. They are partly determined by how soon after the event the memories are assessed.

b. They may be influenced by leading questions.

c. They may be affected by cultural factors.

d. All of the above.

17. The information currently active in your memory system and currently available for use in a mental task is called:

a. working memory

b. short-term memory

c. long-term memory

d. speed of processing

18. Preschoolers are inherently bad at lying because they:

a. are afraid of getting in trouble.

b. want to be nice all the time.

c. lack theory of mind.

d. have incredible empathy.

19. Andy associates the color blue with whales, police cars, the sky, and the ocean. When he thinks of the color blue, all these topics come to mind, further leading him to think about other things such as fish, fire trucks, clouds, or even boats. This interconnected manner of mapping out concepts is known as:

a. metalinguistic awareness

b. fluid intelligence

c. speed of processing

d. a network model/ fast-mapping

20. According to Piaget, what do preschoolers and adolescents share in common?

a. Similar friendship styles

b. Egocentrism

c. Concrete reasoning

d. Low self-esteem

21. is the support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth through a step by step learning process of apprenticeship.

a. Egocentrism

b. Conservation

c. Scaffolding

d. Centration

22. This term explains the level at which a child can learn material that is not too easy nor too difficult, but challenging enough to foster cognitive growth.

a. scaffolding

b. zone of proximal development

c. transformation

d. centration

23. According to Lev Vygotsky, which of the following may be a cultural tool of intellectual development?

a. The particular alphabet of a language

b. The metric system

c. The Chinese Base-10 numerical system

d. All of the above

24. Children with autism reliably fail to answer the False Belief Task correctly. This is because they tend to lack what skill?

a. Joint attention

b. Eye-contact

c. Theory of mind

d. Object permanence

25. Children in early education programs, on average, tend to:

a. be less polite, compliant, respectful of adults, and sometimes more competitive and aggressive

b. show memory and comprehension advantages

c. be more self-confident, independent, and knowledgeable

d. All of the above

26. Which of the following is a predictor of long-term academic success is:

a. emotional intelligence

b. SES

c. reading comprehension

d. All of the above

27. When a preschooler says, “Mommy, my feets hurt,” this is an example of:

a. metalinguistic awareness

b. phonological memory

c. intellectual impairment

d. overregularization

28. The loss of fluency in a child’s heritage language due to the acquisition of a second language is called:

a. Passive bilingualism

b. Subtractive bilingualism

c. Sequential bilingualism

d. Simultaneous bilingualism

29. The ability to control our own thoughts, behaviors, and emotions and change them to meet the demands of the situation is known as:

a. comorbidity

b. self-regulation

c. convention

d. neuroplasticity

30. During the preschool years, the notion that boys prefer to play with other boys, and girls with other girls, is called:

a. gender stability

b. gender permanence

c. gender segregation

d. sexual orientation

31. Mr. Rodriguez wanted to test if his preschool students had _____ , so he wore a pink dress and a wig to class to determine if the students could accurately depict his gender.

a. gender identity

b. gender permanence/constancy

c. gender segregation

d. self-awareness

32. Being able to appropriately identify oneself as a “boy” or a “girl” is called:

a. gender identity

b. gender permanence/constancy

c. gender segregation

d. self-awareness

33. During this psychosocial stage of preschool development, children are capable of acting independently of their parents and, as a result, take it upon themselves to perform their own tasks; otherwise, they feel badly of unintended consequences resulting in their not wanting to perform the action.

a. Trust vs. Mistrust

b. Initiative vs. Guilt

c. Industry vs. Inferiority

d. Identity vs. Identity-Confusion

34. During Kohlberg’s level of moral reasoning, children follow unvarying rules based on rewards and punishments.

a. preconventional

b. conventional

c. postconventional

d. psychosocial

35. parents are firm in their rules, yet loving and emotionally supportive;

while parents are overly controlling and strict, valuing obedience above other things.

a. Authoritarian; authoritative

b. Authoritative; authoritarian

c. Permissive; uninvolved

d. Uninvolved; permissive

36. Which parenting style is most often associated with the highest levels of criminal activity in the adolescent and early adulthood years?

a. Authoritative parenting

b. Permissive-indulgent parenting

c. Permissive-neglectful/uninvolved parenting

d. Authoritarian parenting

37. Children of authoritarian parents often show attachment relationships with their primary caregivers and, as a result, try to move out of their houses as quickly as possible.

a. secure

b. anxious-ambivalent

c. avoidant

d. disorganized

38. Justin and Laura’s daughter has a curfew of 8 P.M. She gets home an hour late one evening, and they forgive her when she says that she lost track of time while studying. But they remind her that they trust her to be mature and follow their guidelines. They have a(n) _ ____ style of parenting.

a. authoritarian

b. permissive-neglectful/uninvolved

c. permissive-indulgent

d. authoritative

39. Neglectful/uninvolved parents and sometimes even authoritarian parents tend to produce which type of attachment formations with their children?

a. Secure

b. Anxious/ambivalent

c. Avoidant

d. Disorganized

40. Which childhood activity is beneficial for developing cognitive skills, practicing motor skills, facilitating problem solving, and teaching cooperation?

a. Imitation

b. Onlooker play

c. Constructive play

d. Homework

41. In early childhood, the type of play that involves pretending, acting, and taking on the role of a specific character is referred to as:

a. parallel play

b. constructive play

c. sociodramatic play

d. onlooker play

42. In play, children engage with one another, take turns, play games, and devise contests.

a. onlooker play

b. parallel play

c. constructive play

d. cooperative play

43. Males tend to engage in more play, whereas females tend to engage in more play.

a. pretend; aggressive

b. rough and tumble; organized games and pretend

c. role; parallel

d. organized games and pretend; rough and tumble

44. The realization that miscommunication may due to factors attributable not only to yourself, but to the person communicating with you is one aspect of:

a. prosocial behavior

b. emotional self-regulation


d. metalinguistic awareness

45. Johnny has a tendency to jump into a task before hearing all the instructions, along with persistent difficulty following instructions and organizing work. He has difficulty waiting or remaining seated, and usually fidgets and squirms around in his chair at school. It is very probable that Johnny may be exhibiting signs of:

a. depression

b. ADHD – inattentive type

c. ADHD – hyperactive type

d. intellectual impairment

46. Which of the following could be a potential cause of the rise in ADHD among American children?

a. Over-diagnosis and misdiagnosis

b. Poor nutrition during prenatal and infant development

c. Stronger demands for sedentary life styles (e.g., sitting still) at younger ages

d. All of the above

47. At the age of two months, Sabrina’s parents noticed that she was not making proper eye contact or tracking objects. Sabrina did not start talking until the age of four years and showed severe impairments in social and emotional functioning. She had an obsession with her routine, sensitivity to sound, and often showed repetitive behaviors like opening and closing doors. It is possible that Sabrina may have:

a. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

b. Autism spectrum disorder

c. Depression

d. Down’s syndrome

48. In order to help Sabrina, her parents may consider placing her in:

a. speech therapy

b. occupational therapy

c. physical therapy

d. All of the above

49. Children with autism tend to engage most in which type of play?

a. parallel play

b. constructive play

c. sociodramatic play

d. onlooker play

50. During early childhood, children’s is typically very high, but begins to diminish slowly into middle childhood and adolescence when children begin to compare themselves heavily with their peers and experience failure.

a. self-esteem

b. literacy

c. self-awareness

d. intelligence

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