Reproductive System

1. List five of the hormones for the female reproductive system and indicate the organs they are produced by and their role in reproduction.

2. Pick three medical terms pertaining to the female reproductive system and three terms pertaining to the male reproductive system, divide them using the 4 step technique, label them and give their meaning.

3. Choose 2 pathological conditions that occur during pregnancy and 2 conditions of the neonate. What are the signs, symptoms and ways to treat these conditions?

4. Orchiopexy and vasectomy are two medical terms that indicate procedures performed for the male reproductive system. Divide each terms using slashes and give their meaning.

Chapter 7
Urinary System

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Learning Objectives

  • Name the organs of the urinary system and describe their locations and functions.
  • Give the meaning of various pathological conditions affecting the urinary system.
  • Recognize the uses and interpretation of urinalysis as a diagnostic test.
  • Define combining forms, prefixes, and suffixes of the urinary system’s terminology.

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Learning Objectives (cont’d.)

  • List and explain some clinical procedures, laboratory tests, and abbreviations that pertain to the urinary system.
  • Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in their proper contexts, such as medical reports and records.

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Chapter 7
Lesson 7.1

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Introduction

  • Nitrogenous wastes
  • urea
  • creatinine
  • uric acid
  • Kidneys
  • Filter nitrogenous wastes to form urine
  • Maintain proper balance of

Water

Eletrolytes

Acids

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Why is nitrogenous waste excreted from the body in a soluble rather than gaseous form?

By what medium does urea travel to the kidneys?

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Introduction (cont’d.)

Kidneys also secrete

Hormones

  • Renin: enzymatic hormone important in adjusting blood pressure
  • Erythropoietin: hormone that stimulates the red blood cell production in bone marrow

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Kidneys also adjust amount of water and electrolytes for proper muscle and nerve function.

Are there other important functions performed by the kidneys?

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Anatomy of the Major Organs

Organs of the Urinary System in a Male

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Have students name the organs of the urinary system labeled 1-4 in the figure.

What is the size and weight of a normal kidney?

What function is performed by the ureters?

What function is performed by the urinary bladder?

What function is performed by the urethra?

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Anatomy of the Major Organs

Organs of the Urinary System in a Male

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*

Have students name the organs of the urinary system labeled 1-4 in the figure.

What is the size and weight of a normal kidney?

What function is performed by the ureters?

What function is performed by the urinary bladder?

What function is performed by the urethra?

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Anatomy of the Major Organs (cont’d.)

Female

Urinary System

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How does the female urinary system differ from the male urinary system?

What is the trigone and what function does it perform?

What is micturition?

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Female

Urinary System

Anatomy of the Major Organs (cont’d.)

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*

How does the female urinary system differ from the male urinary system?

What is the trigone and what function does it perform?

What is micturition?

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QUICK QUIZ:

1. What is micturition?

Nitrogenous waste

Urination; voiding

Outer section of the kidney

Triangular area in the bladder

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Correct answer is B, urination; voiding

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How Kidneys Produce Urine

  • Blood enters kidneys through right and left renal arteries
  • Arterioles carry blood to capillaries
  • Glomeruli filter blood

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The renal artery branches into smaller arteries, arterioles, and glomeruli located throughout the cortex of the kidneys.

What is a glomerulus?

There are approximately one million glomeruli in the cortex of each kidney.

How does the kidney regulate blood pressure?

Why is maintenance of proper blood pressure important to the kidneys’ function?

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How Kidneys Produce Urine

  • Blood enters kidneys through right and left renal arteries
  • Arterioles carry blood to capillaries
  • Glomeruli filter blood

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*

The renal artery branches into smaller arteries, arterioles, and glomeruli located throughout the cortex of the kidneys.

What is a glomerulus?

There are approximately one million glomeruli in the cortex of each kidney.

How does the kidney regulate blood pressure?

Why is maintenance of proper blood pressure important to the kidneys’ function?

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How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d.)

Glomerulus and Bowman Capsule

  • Blood passes through glomeruli
  • Bowman capsule surrounds each glomerulus
  • Renal tubule is attached to each Bowman capsule

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What functions do the glomerulus, Bowman capsule, and renal tubule perform in the production of urine?

Why don’t proteins and blood cells usually appear in the urine?

What is the process of reabsorption?

What is secretion?

What substances make up urine? (Note: These substances become toxic if allowed to accumulate.)

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How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d.)

Glomerulus and Bowman Capsule

  • Blood passes through glomeruli
  • Bowman capsule surrounds each glomerulus
  • Renal tubule is attached to each Bowman capsule

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*

What functions do the glomerulus, Bowman capsule, and renal tubule perform in the production of urine?

Why don’t proteins and blood cells usually appear in the urine?

What is the process of reabsorption?

What is secretion?

What substances make up urine? (Note: These substances become toxic if allowed to accumulate.)

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How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d.)

Three steps in the formation of urine

  • Glomerular filtration
  • Tubular reabsorption
  • Tubular secretion

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What functions are performed in each of the three steps in the formation of urine?

The combination of a glomerulus and a renal tubule is called a nephron. (There are more than 1 million nephrons in a kidney.)

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How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d.)

Three steps in the formation of urine

Glomerular filtration

Tubular reabsorption

Tubular secretion

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What functions are performed in each of the three steps in the formation of urine?

The combination of a glomerulus and a renal tubule is called a nephron. (There are more than 1 million nephrons in a kidney.)

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How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d.)

  • Glomerulus and

a renal tubule combine to form a unit called a nephron.

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*

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How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d.)

  • Glomerulus and

a renal tubule combine to form a unit called a nephron.

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QUICK QUIZ:

Approximately how many nephrons are in a kidney?

100,000,000

10,000,000

1,000,000

100,000

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*

Correct answer is C, 1 million

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How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d.)

All collecting tubules lead to the

renal pelvis

Calyces or calices

are small, cup-like regions of the renal pelvis

Illustration shows section of kidney

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Notice how secretion and reabsorption are functions of the same organs.

Cup-like regions in the renal pelvis are called calyces or calices.

Where do all connecting tubules lead?

The renal pelvis narrows to form the ureter.

To which organ does the ureter lead?

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How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d.)

All collecting tubules lead to the renal pelvis

Calyces or calices are small, cup-like regions of the renal pelvis

Illustration shows section of kidney

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*

Notice how secretion and reabsorption are functions of the same organs.

Cup-like regions in the renal pelvis are called calyces or calices.

Where do all connecting tubules lead?

The renal pelvis narrows to form the ureter.

To which organ does the ureter lead?

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How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d.)

Process of forming and expelling urine

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How is urine flow from the bladder to the urethra controlled?

What triggers the need to urinate?

Urine finally exits the body through the urinary meatus.

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How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d.)

Process of forming and expelling urine

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*

How is urine flow from the bladder to the urethra controlled?

What triggers the need to urinate?

Urine finally exits the body through the urinary meatus.

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Vocabulary

arteriole

Bowman capsule

calyx or calix

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*

Refer to p. 216 for definitions.

How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system?

Which organs are involved in filtering urine?

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arteriole

Bowman capsule

calyx or calix

  • Small artery.
  • Enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus
  • Cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to p. 216 for more detailed definitions.

How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system?

Which organs are involved in filtering urine?

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catheter

cortex

creatinine

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to p. 216 for definitions.

How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system?

Which organs are involved in filtering urine?

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catheter

cortex

creatinine

  • Tube for injecting or removing fluids
  • Outer region
  • Waste product of muscle metabolism

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to p. 216 for more detailed definitions.

How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system?

Which organs are involved in filtering urine?

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electrolyte

erythropoietin (EPO)

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to p. 216 and 217 for definitions.

How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system?

Which organs are involved in filtering urine?

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electrolyte

erythropoietin (EPO)

  • A chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water.
  • A hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate production of red blood cells by bone marrow.

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to p. 216 and 217 for more detailed definitions.

How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system?

Which organs are involved in filtering urine?

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filtration

glomerulus

hilum

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to p. 217 for definitions.

How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system?

Which organs are involved in filtering urine?

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filtration

glomerulus

hilum

  • Passive process whereby some substances pass through a filter or other material.
  • Tiny ball of capillaries in the cortex of kidney.
  • Depression in the part of an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave.

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to p. 217 for more detailed definitions.

How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system?

Which organs are involved in filtering urine?

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kidney

meatus

medulla

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to pp. 217 for definitions.

What path does waste take through the urinary system?

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kidney

meatus

medulla

  • One of two bean-shaped organs behind the abdominal cavity.
  • Opening or canal
  • Inner region

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to pp. 217 for definitions.

What path does waste take through the urinary system?

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micturition

nephron

nitrogenous waste

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to pp. 218 for definitions.

What path does waste take through the urinary system?

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micturition

nephron

nitrogenous waste

  • Urination.
  • The functional unit of the kidney where filtration, reabsorption, and secretion take place.
  • Substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine.

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to pp. 218 for more detailed definitions.

What path does waste take through the urinary system?

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potassium (K+)

reabsorption

renal artery

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to pp. 218 for definitions.

What path does waste take through the urinary system?

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potassium (K+)

reabsorption

renal artery

  • An electrolyte important to body processes.
  • Renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream.
  • Blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney.

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to pp. 218 for more detailed definitions.

What path does waste take through the urinary system?

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  • renal pelvis
  • renal tubule
  • renal vein

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to pp. 220-221 for definitions.

What path does waste take through the urinary system?

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renal pelvis

renal tubule

renal vein

  • Central collection region in the kidney
  • Microscopic tube in the kidney in which urine is formed after filtration.
  • Blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart.

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to pp. 218 for more detailed definitions.

What path does waste take through the urinary system?

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  • renin
  • sodium (Na+)
  • trigone

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to p. 221 for definitions.

What is another term for urination?

What is renin and where is it formed?

Where is the trigone located?

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renin

sodium (Na+)

trigone

  • An enzymatic hormone synthesized, stored, and secreted by the kidney.
  • An electrolyte regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys.
  • Triangular area in the urinary bladder in which ureters enter and the urethra exits.

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to p. 221 for definitions.

What is another term for urination?

What is renin and where is it formed?

Where is the trigone located?

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  • urea
  • ureter
  • urethra

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to p. 221 for definitions.

What is another term for urination?

What is renin and where is it formed?

Where is the trigone located?

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urea

ureter

urethra

  • Major nitrogenous waste product excreted in urine.
  • Tube leading from each kidney to the urinary bladder.
  • Tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.

Vocabulary

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  • uric acid
  • urinary bladder
  • urination
  • voiding

Vocabulary

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*

Refer to p. 221 for definitions.

What is another term for urination?

What is renin and where is it formed?

Where is the trigone located?

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uric acid

urinary bladder

urination

voiding

  • A nitrogenous waste product excreted in the urine.
  • Hollow muscular sac that holds and stores urine.
  • Process of expelling urine.
  • Emptying of urine from the urinary bladder; urination or micturition.

Vocabulary

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STRUCTURES

cali/o , calic/o _________

cyst/o _________

glomerul/o _________

meat/o _________

Combining Form Meaning

Terminology: Structures,
Substances and Urinary Symptoms

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*

Refer to pp. 219 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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STRUCTURES

cali/o , calic/o calyx (calix)

cyst/o urinary bladder

glomerul/o glomerulus

meat/o meatus

Terminology: Structures,
Substances and Urinary Symptoms

Combining Form Meaning

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*

Refer to pp. 219 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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STRUCTURES

cyst/o cystitis ________________

Combining Form Terminology Meaning

Terminology: Structures,
Substances and Urinary Symptoms

Bacterial infections often cause acute or chronic cystitis. In acute cystitis, the bladder contains blood as a result of mucosal hemorrhage (see figure, Acute cystitis).

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*

Refer to pp. 220-226 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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STRUCTURES

cyst/o cystitis inflammation of the urinary bladder

Combining Form Terminology Meaning

Bacterial infections often cause acute or chronic cystitis. In acute cystitis, the bladder contains blood as a result of mucosal hemorrhage (see figure, Acute cystitis).

Terminology: Structures,
Substances and Urinary Symptoms

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*

Refer to pp. 220-226 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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STRUCTURES

nephr/o ___________

pyel/o ___________

ren/o ____________

trigon/o ____________

Terminology: Structures,
Substances and Urinary Symptoms

Combining Form Meaning

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*

Refer to pp. 220-221 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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STRUCTURES

nephr/o kidney

pyel/o renal pelvis

ren/o kidney

trigon/o trigone

Terminology: Structures,
Substances and Urinary Symptoms

Combining Form Meaning

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*

Refer to pp. 220-221 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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Terminology: Structures,
Substances and Urinary Symptoms

STRUCTURES

nephr/o hydronephrosis _________________

Combining Form Terminology Meaning

Obstruction of urine flow may be caused by renal calculi (stone) as shown in figure. Notice the buildup of excess fluid in the kidney.

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*

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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STRUCTURES

nephr/o hydronephrosis Condition of excess fluid (water) in the kidney.

Combining Form Terminology Meaning

Obstruction of urine flow may be caused by renal calculi (stone) as shown in figure. Notice the buildup of excess fluid in the kidney.

Terminology: Structures,
Substances and Urinary Symptoms

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*

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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STRUCTURES

ureter/o __________

urethr/o __________

vesic/o __________

Terminology: Structures,
Substances and Urinary Symptoms

Combining Form Meaning

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*

Refer to pp. 221 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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STRUCTURES

ureter/o ureter

urethr/o urethra

vesic/o urinary bladder

Terminology: Structures,
Substances and Urinary Symptoms

Combining Form Meaning

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*

Refer to pp. 221 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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SUBSTANCES and SYMPTOMS

albumin/o ________

azot/o ________

bacteri/o ________

dips/o ________

Terminology: Structures,
Substances and Urinary Symptoms

Combining Form Meaning

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*

Refer to pp. 221-222 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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SUBSTANCES and SYMPTOMS

albumin/o albumin

azot/o nitrogen

bacteri/o bacteria

dips/o thirst

Terminology: Structures,
Substances and Urinary Symptoms

Combining Form Meaning

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*

Refer to pp. 221-222 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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SUBSTANCES and SYMPTOMS

ket/o, keton/o __________

lith/o __________

noct/o __________

olig/o __________

-poietin __________

Combining Form

Or Suffix Meaning

Terminology: Structures,
Substances and Urinary Symptoms

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*

Refer to pp. 222 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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SUBSTANCES and SYMPTOMS

ket/o, keton/o ketone bodies

lith/o stone

noct/o night

olig/o scanty

-poietin substance that forms

Combining Form

Or Suffix Meaning

Terminology: Structures,
Substances and Urinary Symptoms

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*

Refer to pp. 222 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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SUBSTANCES and SYMPTOMS

py/o __________

-tripsy __________

ur/o __________

urin/o __________

-uria __________

Combining Form

Or Suffix Meaning

Terminology: Structures,
Substances and Urinary Symptoms

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*

Refer to pp. 222-223 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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SUBSTANCES and SYMPTOMS

py/o pus

-tripsy to crush

ur/o urea

urin/o urine

-uria urination; urine condition

Combining Form

Or Suffix Meaning

Terminology: Structures,
Substances and Urinary Symptoms

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Refer to pp. 222-223 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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Urinalysis

Tests included in a Urinalysis

Color

Appearance

pH

Protein

Glucose

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*

Colorless urine = large amount of water in urine. Smoky-red or brown indicates presence of blood in urine.

Normal pH is 6.5 (slightly acidic).

Protein test looks for albumin, which indicates a leak in the glomerular membrane.

Glucose presence signals possibility of diabetes.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Urinalysis (cont’d.)

Tests included in a Urinalysis

Specific gravity

Ketone bodies

Sediment

Phenylketonuria

Bilirubin

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*

Specific gravity reflects amounts of wastes and minerals.

Ketone bodies appear when the body breaks down fat.

Sediment are abnormal particles.

Phenylketonuria indicates a lack of enzyme, especially in infants. PKU test measures this.

Bilirubin results from a hemoglobin breakdown.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

QUICK QUIZ:

In a urinalysis, what does the test specific gravity reflect?

A. The chemical nature of urine

B. Presence of albumin

C. Blood in the urine

D. Amount of wastes, minerals and solids in the urine

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Correct Answer is D, specific gravity compares the density of urine with that of water.

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Chapter 7
Lesson 7.2

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*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pathologic Conditions

Kidney

  • glomerulonephritis
  • interstitial nephritis
  • nephrolithiasis
  • nephrotic syndrome
  • polycystic kidneys (PKD)

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

See pp. 225-226.

Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation of the kidney due to infection and can lead to hypertension and renal failure if untreated.

What is interstitial nephritis?

What procedure might a physician recommend for a patient with nephrolithiasis?

Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms caused by excessive protein in the urine.

Polycystic kidneys are a hereditary condition of progressive growth of cysts.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pathologic Conditions

Kidney

  • polycystic

kidney

disease (PKD)

PKD–The kidneys contain masses of cysts. Typically polycystic kidneys weight 20 times more than their usual weight.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

See pp. 225-226.

Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation of the kidney due to infection and can lead to hypertension and renal failure if untreated.

What is interstitial nephritis?

What procedure might a physician recommend for a patient with nephrolithiasis?

Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms caused by excessive protein in the urine.

Polycystic kidneys are a hereditary condition of progressive growth of cysts.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pathologic Conditions (cont’d.)

Kidney

  • pyelonephritis
  • renal cell carcinoma
  • renal failure
  • renal hypertension
  • Wilms tumor

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*

See p. 229.

Pyelonephritis is the inflammation of the renal pelvis and renal medulla and is the most common type of kidney infection.

Renal cell carcinoma is adult cancer of the kidney—2% of all adult cancers.

What occurs during renal failure?

How does renal hypertension differ from essential hypertension?

Wilms tumor is a malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in childhood and is an example of an eponym.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pathologic Conditions

Kidney

  • Renal cell

carcinoma

(hypernephroma)

Cancerous tumor

of the kidney

in adulthood.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

See pp. 226 for more detail.

Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation of the kidney due to infection and can lead to hypertension and renal failure if untreated.

What is interstitial nephritis?

What procedure might a physician recommend for a patient with nephrolithiasis?

Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms caused by excessive protein in the urine.

Polycystic kidneys are a hereditary condition of progressive growth of cysts.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pathologic Conditions (cont’d.)

Urinary bladder

  • Bladder cancer

Associated conditions

  • Diabetes insipidus
  • Diabetes mellitus

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*

Bladder cancer is the most common form of malignancy in the urinary system.

What risk factors are associated with bladder cancer?

Diabetes insipidus: inadequate secretion or resistance of the kidney to antidiuretic hormone

Diabetes mellitus: inadequate secretion or improper utilization of insulin

How does each of these conditions affect the kidneys?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

QUICK QUIZ:

A term that means frequent (voluntary) urination at night is:

Anuria

Nocturia

Diuresis

Hematuria

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*

Correct answer is nocturia.

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Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures

Laboratory tests

  • blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
  • creatinine clearance test

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*

Which procedure tests for uremia?

Which test measures the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood?

What is azotemia?

What role do the kidneys play in BUN levels?

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Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d.)

CLINICAL PROCEDURES

X-Ray Studies

  • CT scan
  • kidneys, ureters, & bladder (KUB)
  • renal angiography
  • retrograde pyelogram (RP)
  • voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)

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*

How do these x-rays differ?

Which tests require contrast material?

Why is it important to measure the size of the kidneys (KUB)?

Which tests require urinary catheterization?

Why would someone have RP instead of IVP?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • CT-Computed Tomography

The scan with contrast shows a benign cyst on the kidney.

Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d.)

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*

See page 228 for more detailed description.

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VOIDING CYSTOURETHROGRAM

  • (VCUG)showing a normal female urethra. The bladder is filled with contrast material, followed by x-ray imaging.

Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d.)

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*

See page 228-229 for more detailed description.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

CLINICAL PROCEDURES

Ultrasound Examination

  • ultrasonography: imaging urinary tract structures using high frequency sound waves

Radioactive Studies

  • radioisotope scan: image of kidney after injecting a radioisotope (that concentrates in the kidney) into the bloodstream

Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d.)

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*

What is hydronephrosis?

What might cause the kidney to be enlarged?

What can be diagnosed in the urinary system using sound waves?

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CLINICAL PROCEDURES

Magnetic imaging

  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): using magnetic field and radio waves to produce images in all three planes of the body

Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d.)

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*

How is an MRI of the kidney performed?

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Other Clinical Procedures

  • cystoscopy
  • dialysis
  • lithotripsy
  • renal angioplasty
  • renal biopsy
  • renal transplantation
  • urinary catheterization

Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d.)

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Cystoscopy allows for visual examination through a hollow metal tube.

What is the difference between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis?

What procedure might be required to remove kidney stones?

Describe the process of catheterization.

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Hemodialysis (HD)

Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d.)

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*

How is a cytoscopy performed?

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Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)

Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d.)

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*

CAPD can be performed continuously by the patient without artificial support.

What other peritoneal dialysis procedures may be performed?

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Abbreviations

  • ADH _______________
  • ARF _______________
  • BILI _______________
  • BUN _______________
  • CAPD _______________
  • Cath _______________
  • CCPD _______________
  • CKD _______________

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Which abbreviations stand for disorders, which are measurements, and which are procedures?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • ADH antidiuretic hormone
  • ARF acute renal failure
  • BILI bilirubin
  • BUN blood urea nitrogen
  • CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
  • Cath catheter; catheterization
  • CCPD continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis
  • CKD chronic kidney disease

Abbreviations (cont’d.)

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Which abbreviations stand for disorders, which are measurements, and which are procedures?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • CL- _____________________
  • CRF _____________________
  • C & S _____________________
  • cysto _____________________
  • ESRD _____________________
  • HCO3- _____________________
  • HD _____________________
  • IC _____________________

Abbreviations (cont’d.)

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*

Which items are pathologies, and which are treatments?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • CL- chloride, a kidney excretion
  • CRF chronic renal failure
  • C&S culture and sensitivity testing
  • cysto cystoscopic examination
  • ESRD end-stage renal disease
  • HCO3- bicarbonate, an electrolyte conserved by the kidney
  • HD hemodialysis
  • IC interstitial cystitis, chronic inflammation of the bladder wall

Abbreviations (cont’d.)

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Which items are pathologies, and which are treatments?

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • K+ __________________
  • KUB __________________
  • Na+ __________________
  • PD __________________
  • pH __________________
  • PKU __________________
  • sp gr __________________
  • UA __________________
  • UTI __________________
  • VCUG __________________

Abbreviations (cont’d.)

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*

Ask students to identify the category of metabolite, treatment, condition, or test.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • K+ potassium, an electrolyte
  • KUB kidney ureter and bladder
  • Na+ sodium, an electrolyte
  • PD peritoneal dialysis
  • pH symbol for degree of acidity or alkalinity
  • PKU phenylketonuria
  • sp gr specific gravity
  • UA urinalysis
  • UTI urinary tract infection
  • VCUG voiding cystourethrogram

Abbreviations (cont’d.)

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Ask students to identify the category of metabolite, treatment, condition, or test.

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

QUICK QUIZ:

The abbreviation RP is associated with which of the following?

A. Fluid is injected into the peritoneal

cavity and then drained out

B. Contrast is injected into the urinary

bladder and ureters and x-rays are

taken of the urinary tract.

C. Nitrogenous wastes removed from

patient’s blood

D. An electrolyte secreted by renal tubules

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

CORRECT Answer is B abbreviation is for retrograde pyelogram

Incorrect answer A. is CAPD, continous ambulatory periotoneal dialysis

Incorrect Answer C is HD, hemodialysis

Incorrect Answer D is K+ potassium

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REVIEW SHEET

albumino/o ____________

angi/o ____________

azot/o ____________

bacteri/o ____________

cali/o, calic/o ____________

cyst/o ____________

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*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

albumino/o albumin (protein)

angi/o vessel (blood)

azot/o urea; nitrogen

bacteri/o bacteria

cali/o, calic/o calyx (calix)

cyst/o urinary bladder

REVIEW SHEET

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*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

dips/o ____________

glomerul/o ____________

glycos/o ____________

hydr/o ____________

isch/o ____________

ket/o; keton/o ____________

REVIEW SHEET
combining forms

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*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

dips/o thirst

glomerul/o glomerulus

glycos/o sugar

hydr/o water

isch/o to hold back; back

ket/o; keton/o ketones; acetones

REVIEW SHEET
combining forms

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*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

lith/o ____________

meat/o ____________

necr/o ____________

nephr/o ____________

noct/o ____________

ogli/o ____________

REVIEW SHEET
combining forms

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

lith/o stone

meat/o meatus

necr/o death

nephr/o kidney

noct/o night

ogli/o scanty

REVIEW SHEET
combining forms

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*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

py/o __________

pyel/o __________

ren/o __________

trigon/o __________

ur/o __________

REVIEW SHEET
combining forms

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*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

py/o pus

pyel/o renal pelvis

ren/o kidney

trigon/o trigone

ur/o urine; urinary tract

REVIEW SHEET
combining forms

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*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

ureter/o ____________

urethro ____________

urin/o ____________

vesic/o ____________

REVIEW SHEET
combining forms

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*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

ureter/o ureter

urethr/o urethra

urin/o urine

vesic/o urinary bladder

REVIEW SHEET
combining forms

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*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

-ectasis ______________

-ectomy ______________

-emia ______________

-esis ______________

-gram ______________

-lithiasis ______________

REVIEW SHEET
SUFFIXES

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*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

-ectasis stretching; dilation

-ectomy removal; excision

-emia blood condition

-esis condition

-gram record

-lithiasis condition of stones

REVIEW SHEET
SUFFIXES

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

-lithotomy ____________________

-lysis ______________

-megaly ______________

-ole ______________

-osis ______________

-pathy ______________

REVIEW SHEET
SUFFIXES

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

-lithotomy incision for removal of a stone

-lysis breakdown

-megaly enlargement

-ole little; small

-osis condition

-pathy disease

REVIEW SHEET
SUFFIXES

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

-plasty _________________

-poietin _______________

-ptosis _______________

-rrhea _______________

-sclerosis _______________

-stomy ___________________

REVIEW SHEET
SUFFIXES

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

-plasty surgical repair

-poietin substance that forms

-ptosis droop; sag

-rrhea flow; discharge

-sclerosis hardening

-stomy new opening (to form a mouth)

REVIEW SHEET
SUFFIXES

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

-tomy _____________

-tripsy ___________

-uria ___________

REVIEW SHEET
SUFFIXES

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

-tomy process of cutting

-tripsy to crush

-uria urination

REVIEW SHEET
SUFFIXES

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

a-, an- _____________

anti- _____________

dia- _____________

dys- _____________

REVIEW SHEET
PREFIXES

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

a-, an- not; without

anti- again

dia- complete

dys- bad; painful

REVIEW SHEET
PREFIXES

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*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

en- __________

peri- __________

poly- __________

retro- __________

REVIEW SHEET
PREFIXES

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

en- in; within

peri- surrounding

poly- many, much

retro- behind; back

REVIEW SHEET
PREFIXES

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

The combining form dips/o means:

Stone

Scanty

Thirst

Water

QUICK QUIZ:

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

C Thirst is the correct answer

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Which combining form means pus?

pyel/o

lith/o

ogli/o

py/o

QUICK QUIZ:

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

D, py/o is the correct answer

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

8. The combining form isch/o means:

Scanty

To hold back; back

Night

Trigon

QUICK QUIZ:

Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

*

B To hold back or back is the correct answer

*

*

*

*

*

Why is nitrogenous waste excreted from the body in a soluble rather than gaseous form?

By what medium does urea travel to the kidneys?

*

Kidneys also adjust amount of water and electrolytes for proper muscle and nerve function.

Are there other important functions performed by the kidneys?

*

Have students name the organs of the urinary system labeled 1-4 in the figure.

What is the size and weight of a normal kidney?

What function is performed by the ureters?

What function is performed by the urinary bladder?

What function is performed by the urethra?

*

Have students name the organs of the urinary system labeled 1-4 in the figure.

What is the size and weight of a normal kidney?

What function is performed by the ureters?

What function is performed by the urinary bladder?

What function is performed by the urethra?

*

How does the female urinary system differ from the male urinary system?

What is the trigone and what function does it perform?

What is micturition?

*

How does the female urinary system differ from the male urinary system?

What is the trigone and what function does it perform?

What is micturition?

*

Correct answer is B, urination; voiding

*

The renal artery branches into smaller arteries, arterioles, and glomeruli located throughout the cortex of the kidneys.

What is a glomerulus?

There are approximately one million glomeruli in the cortex of each kidney.

How does the kidney regulate blood pressure?

Why is maintenance of proper blood pressure important to the kidneys’ function?

*

The renal artery branches into smaller arteries, arterioles, and glomeruli located throughout the cortex of the kidneys.

What is a glomerulus?

There are approximately one million glomeruli in the cortex of each kidney.

How does the kidney regulate blood pressure?

Why is maintenance of proper blood pressure important to the kidneys’ function?

*

What functions do the glomerulus, Bowman capsule, and renal tubule perform in the production of urine?

Why don’t proteins and blood cells usually appear in the urine?

What is the process of reabsorption?

What is secretion?

What substances make up urine? (Note: These substances become toxic if allowed to accumulate.)

*

What functions do the glomerulus, Bowman capsule, and renal tubule perform in the production of urine?

Why don’t proteins and blood cells usually appear in the urine?

What is the process of reabsorption?

What is secretion?

What substances make up urine? (Note: These substances become toxic if allowed to accumulate.)

*

What functions are performed in each of the three steps in the formation of urine?

The combination of a glomerulus and a renal tubule is called a nephron. (There are more than 1 million nephrons in a kidney.)

*

What functions are performed in each of the three steps in the formation of urine?

The combination of a glomerulus and a renal tubule is called a nephron. (There are more than 1 million nephrons in a kidney.)

*

*

*

Correct answer is C, 1 million

*

Notice how secretion and reabsorption are functions of the same organs.

Cup-like regions in the renal pelvis are called calyces or calices.

Where do all connecting tubules lead?

The renal pelvis narrows to form the ureter.

To which organ does the ureter lead?

*

Notice how secretion and reabsorption are functions of the same organs.

Cup-like regions in the renal pelvis are called calyces or calices.

Where do all connecting tubules lead?

The renal pelvis narrows to form the ureter.

To which organ does the ureter lead?

*

How is urine flow from the bladder to the urethra controlled?

What triggers the need to urinate?

Urine finally exits the body through the urinary meatus.

*

How is urine flow from the bladder to the urethra controlled?

What triggers the need to urinate?

Urine finally exits the body through the urinary meatus.

*

Refer to p. 216 for definitions.

How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system?

Which organs are involved in filtering urine?

*

Refer to p. 216 for more detailed definitions.

How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system?

Which organs are involved in filtering urine?

*

Refer to p. 216 for definitions.

How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system?

Which organs are involved in filtering urine?

*

Refer to p. 216 for more detailed definitions.

How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system?

Which organs are involved in filtering urine?

*

Refer to p. 216 and 217 for definitions.

How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system?

Which organs are involved in filtering urine?

*

Refer to p. 216 and 217 for more detailed definitions.

How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system?

Which organs are involved in filtering urine?

*

Refer to p. 217 for definitions.

How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system?

Which organs are involved in filtering urine?

*

Refer to p. 217 for more detailed definitions.

How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system?

Which organs are involved in filtering urine?

*

Refer to pp. 217 for definitions.

What path does waste take through the urinary system?

*

Refer to pp. 217 for definitions.

What path does waste take through the urinary system?

*

Refer to pp. 218 for definitions.

What path does waste take through the urinary system?

*

Refer to pp. 218 for more detailed definitions.

What path does waste take through the urinary system?

*

Refer to pp. 218 for definitions.

What path does waste take through the urinary system?

*

Refer to pp. 218 for more detailed definitions.

What path does waste take through the urinary system?

*

Refer to pp. 220-221 for definitions.

What path does waste take through the urinary system?

*

Refer to pp. 218 for more detailed definitions.

What path does waste take through the urinary system?

*

Refer to p. 221 for definitions.

What is another term for urination?

What is renin and where is it formed?

Where is the trigone located?

*

Refer to p. 221 for definitions.

What is another term for urination?

What is renin and where is it formed?

Where is the trigone located?

*

Refer to p. 221 for definitions.

What is another term for urination?

What is renin and where is it formed?

Where is the trigone located?

*

*

Refer to p. 221 for definitions.

What is another term for urination?

What is renin and where is it formed?

Where is the trigone located?

*

*

Refer to pp. 219 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

*

Refer to pp. 219 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

*

Refer to pp. 220-226 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

*

Refer to pp. 220-226 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

*

Refer to pp. 220-221 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

*

Refer to pp. 220-221 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

*

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

*

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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Refer to pp. 221 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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Refer to pp. 221 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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Refer to pp. 221-222 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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Refer to pp. 221-222 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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Refer to pp. 222 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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Refer to pp. 222 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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Refer to pp. 222-223 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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Refer to pp. 222-223 for definitions.

Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide?

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Colorless urine = large amount of water in urine. Smoky-red or brown indicates presence of blood in urine.

Normal pH is 6.5 (slightly acidic).

Protein test looks for albumin, which indicates a leak in the glomerular membrane.

Glucose presence signals possibility of diabetes.

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Specific gravity reflects amounts of wastes and minerals.

Ketone bodies appear when the body breaks down fat.

Sediment are abnormal particles.

Phenylketonuria indicates a lack of enzyme, especially in infants. PKU test measures this.

Bilirubin results from a hemoglobin breakdown.

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Correct Answer is D, specific gravity compares the density of urine with that of water.

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See pp. 225-226.

Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation of the kidney due to infection and can lead to hypertension and renal failure if untreated.

What is interstitial nephritis?

What procedure might a physician recommend for a patient with nephrolithiasis?

Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms caused by excessive protein in the urine.

Polycystic kidneys are a hereditary condition of progressive growth of cysts.

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See pp. 225-226.

Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation of the kidney due to infection and can lead to hypertension and renal failure if untreated.

What is interstitial nephritis?

What procedure might a physician recommend for a patient with nephrolithiasis?

Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms caused by excessive protein in the urine.

Polycystic kidneys are a hereditary condition of progressive growth of cysts.

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See p. 229.

Pyelonephritis is the inflammation of the renal pelvis and renal medulla and is the most common type of kidney infection.

Renal cell carcinoma is adult cancer of the kidney—2% of all adult cancers.

What occurs during renal failure?

How does renal hypertension differ from essential hypertension?

Wilms tumor is a malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in childhood and is an example of an eponym.

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See pp. 226 for more detail.

Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation of the kidney due to infection and can lead to hypertension and renal failure if untreated.

What is interstitial nephritis?

What procedure might a physician recommend for a patient with nephrolithiasis?

Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms caused by excessive protein in the urine.

Polycystic kidneys are a hereditary condition of progressive growth of cysts.

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Bladder cancer is the most common form of malignancy in the urinary system.

What risk factors are associated with bladder cancer?

Diabetes insipidus: inadequate secretion or resistance of the kidney to antidiuretic hormone

Diabetes mellitus: inadequate secretion or improper utilization of insulin

How does each of these conditions affect the kidneys?

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Correct answer is nocturia.

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Which procedure tests for uremia?

Which test measures the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood?

What is azotemia?

What role do the kidneys play in BUN levels?

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How do these x-rays differ?

Which tests require contrast material?

Why is it important to measure the size of the kidneys (KUB)?

Which tests require urinary catheterization?

Why would someone have RP instead of IVP?

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See page 228 for more detailed description.

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See page 228-229 for more detailed description.

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What is hydronephrosis?

What might cause the kidney to be enlarged?

What can be diagnosed in the urinary system using sound waves?

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How is an MRI of the kidney performed?

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Cystoscopy allows for visual examination through a hollow metal tube.

What is the difference between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis?

What procedure might be required to remove kidney stones?

Describe the process of catheterization.

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How is a cytoscopy performed?

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CAPD can be performed continuously by the patient without artificial support.

What other peritoneal dialysis procedures may be performed?

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Which abbreviations stand for disorders, which are measurements, and which are procedures?

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Which abbreviations stand for disorders, which are measurements, and which are procedures?

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Which items are pathologies, and which are treatments?

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Which items are pathologies, and which are treatments?

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Ask students to identify the category of metabolite, treatment, condition, or test.

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Ask students to identify the category of metabolite, treatment, condition, or test.

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CORRECT Answer is B abbreviation is for retrograde pyelogram

Incorrect answer A. is CAPD, continous ambulatory periotoneal dialysis

Incorrect Answer C is HD, hemodialysis

Incorrect Answer D is K+ potassium

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C Thirst is the correct answer

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D, py/o is the correct answer

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B To hold back or back is the correct answer

 
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