Specific Types Of Quantitative Research & Sampling In Quantitative Research.

Suppose you are going to conduct a study utilizing Quantitative Research Design: which type of research would you use,  and which method would you utilize to collect data and select your sample.

Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Chapter 12

Sampling in Quantitative Research

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

The aggregate of cases in which a researcher is interested is called a sample.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

False

The aggregate of cases in which a researcher is interested is called a population. A sample is selection of a portion of the population to represent the entire population.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Basic Sampling Concepts in Quantitative Studies

Population: the aggregate of cases in which a researcher is interested

Sampling: selection of a portion of the population (a sample) to represent the entire population

Element: basic population unit about which information is collected

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Eligibility Criteria

  • Establish population characteristics
  • Determine participation in study
  • Maximize construct validity
  • Inclusion
  • Exclusion

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Researchers usually sample from the target population.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

False

Researchers usually sample from the accessible population but should identify the target population to which they want to generalize their results.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Basic Sampling Concepts in Quantitative Studies

Representative sample

A sample whose key characteristics closely approximate those of the population

Sampling bias

The systematic over- or underrepresentation of segments of the population on key variables

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Probability sampling involves random selection of elements.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

True

Probability sampling involves random selection of elements.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Basic Sampling Concepts in Quantitative Studies (cont.)

Probability sampling

Involves random selection of elements

 

Nonprobability sampling

Does not involve selection of elements at random

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Nonprobability Sampling

  • Convenience sampling
  • Snowball sampling
  • Quota sampling
  • Consecutive sampling
  • Purposive sampling

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Probability Sampling

  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified random sampling
  • Multistage sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Systematic sampling

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Power Analysis

  • Estimate sample size
  • Large samples preferred to small samples

    Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Chapter 11

    Specific Types of
    Quantitative Research

    *

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Question

    Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

    Phase I clinical trials involve seeking opportunities for refinements and preliminary evidence of efficacy.

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Answer

    False

    Phase II clinical trials involve seeking opportunities for refinements and preliminary evidence of efficacy. Phase I features of the intervention that are finalized.

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Clinical Trials

    • Effectiveness of clinical interventions
    • Phase I
    • Phase II
    • Phase III
    • Phase IV

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Sequential Clinical Trial

    • Data from paired “mini-experiments”
    • Continuously analyzed
    • Preference measures
    • Stopping rules

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Question

    Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

    Practical clinical trials aim to reduce the gap between efficacy and effectiveness studies.

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Answer

    False

    Practical clinical trials are designed to provide information to clinical decision makers.

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Practical Clinical Trials

    • Also called pragmatic clinical trials
    • Provide information to clinical decision makers

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Evaluation Research

    • Effectiveness of a program, policy, procedure
    • Assist decision makers

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Question

    What is the purpose of an outcome analysis?

    Describes the status of some condition after the introduction of a program

    Tests whether a program causes net impacts

    Describes the process by which a program gets implemented and functions in practice

    Assesses whether the monetary costs of a program are outweighed by benefits

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Answer

    A

    Outcome analysis describes the status of some condition after the introduction of a program.

    Impact analysis tests whether a program causes net impacts.

    Process analysis describes the process by which a program gets implemented and functions in practice.

    Cost analysis assesses whether the monetary costs of a program are outweighed by benefits.

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Various Analyses

    • Process or implementation
    • Outcome
    • Impact
    • Cost or economic
    • Cost–benefit analysis
    • Cost-effectiveness analysis
    • Cost-utility analysis

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Question

    Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

    Outcome research examines the quality and effectiveness of health care and nursing services.

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Answer

    True

    Outcome research examines the quality and effectiveness of health care and nursing services.

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Outcome Research

    • Quality and effectiveness of health care and nursing services
    • Health care quality
    • Structure
    • Process
    • Client risk factors
    • Outcomes

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Survey Research

    • People’s characteristics, behaviors, and intentions by asking them to answer questions
    • Personal interviews
    • Telephone interviews
    • Questionnaires

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Secondary Analysis

    • Researchers analyze previously collected data.
    • Economical
    • Difficult to identify appropriate existing data base

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Needs Assessment

    • Needs of group or community
    • Three main needs
    • Key informant
    • Survey
    • Indicators approach

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Question

    Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

    The Delphi technique is a method of problem solving in which one round of questionnaires are sent to a panel of experts.

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Answer

    False

    The Delphi technique is a method of problem solving in which several rounds of questionnaires are sent to a panel of experts, not one round.

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Delphi Technique

    • Problem solving
    • Several rounds of questionnaires

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Replication Studies

    • Identical
    • Virtual
    • Systematic extension replication

    Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Methodologic Studies

    • Development
    • Validation
    • Assessment
 
Do you need a similar assignment done for you from scratch? We have qualified writers to help you. We assure you an A+ quality paper that is free from plagiarism. Order now for an Amazing Discount!
Use Discount Code "Newclient" for a 15% Discount!

NB: We do not resell papers. Upon ordering, we do an original paper exclusively for you.