Response Guidelines

Read as many of your peers’ posts as time allows, and respond to at least two of them. Try to choose posts that have had the fewest responses.

Your responses to other learners are expected to be substantive in nature and to reference the assigned readings, as well as other theoretical, empirical, or professional literature to support your views and writings. Use the following critique guidelines:

The clarity and completeness of your peer’s post.

The demonstrated ability to apply theory to practice.

The credibility of the references.

The structure and style of the written post.


Jazmine Miller

Middle and Late Adulthood

Week 9

As an individual ages, so does their mind. For this reason it is important that as an individual grows they take steps to protect their mental states as well as their physical body. The first thing that a practitioner should take into consideration before considering applying one or more theories is the individuals demographics. An individuals demographics have a lot to do with how a practitioner would need to advise them, for instance an individual who had a diagnosis of depression at some point in life is more likely to experience that again inmiddle and late adulthood. Just as individuals with less academic experience and/or an improvised background are more likely to develop dementia (Smith, & Hayslip Jr, 2012).

Before utilizing psychological theory to assist a patient it could be of good use to simply utilize the current research that developmental psychologist provide through articles. This can provide evidence based results. For instance, studies have shown that the use of technology can help maintain mental durability for older individual due to the learning curve that technology provides (Erickson, & Johnson, 2011).

There are a wide variety of theories that can be used to approach an individual who is approaching middle or late adulthood. However, there are always some that are more appropriate to use then others. A practitioner needs to consistently keep that in mind to ensure that no harm is being done to the patient. With that being said one of the most popular theories in lifespan development is Erik Ericsson’s theory of psychosocial stages. This theory goes through what aspects need to be met through each stage of life to create and maintain a healthy mental state. It also gives an idea of what factors could be affecting a poor mental state. For example in erickdonsvtheory describes middle adulthood as the stage of Generativity vs. Stagnation, in this stage raising a family and being productive in their work and their community(Erikson, 1963, p. 245).There is also stages leading up to late adulthood.


Smith, G. C., & Hayslip Jr, B. (2012). Resilience in adulthood and later life: What does it mean and where are we heading?. Annual Review of Gerontology & Geriatrics, 32, 3.

Erickson, J., & Johnson, G. M. (2011). Internet use and psychological wellness during late adulthood. Canadian Journal on Aging/la Revue canadienne du vieillissement, 30(2), 197-209.

Erikson, E. H. (Ed.). (1963). Youth: Change and challenge. Basic books.


Pauline Jackson


Late adulthood is the time after age 55.  Subjective well being is another way to say happiness.  Happiness is a well studies area of the human experience.  “The most commonly used measurements of SWB incorporate three separable factors: overall life satisfaction, frequency of positive and of negative moods” (Broderick, 2014, p. 526). There are things that we measure by self-reporting.  Surveys are often given to see how happy we are, or how well we are feeling about our lives as a whole.  The cognitive part of happiness is measure by how satisfying we view our life.  The reposts of what we view as negative or positive are how our emotions are measured. Based on these surveys and studies we have learned what humans find important and how it relates to how happy we feel.

The experience-sampling method is one way scientists have found to understand what makes humans happy.  While this is a somewhat intrusive test, it shows in real life what creates feelings of happiness.   “Typically, those who use this methodology give participants beepers that are programmed to beep at various points during the day. The beep alerts participants to record what they are doing and how they are feeling at that moment. This strategy is a good way to observe lives as they unfold.” (Broderick, 2014, p. 527)

Another test that was developed is the day reconstruction method.  This test isn’t intrusive the way experience sampling is.  Participants in this test are asked what happened throughout their day.  They may write there experiences in a diary. These memories are described and the participants are given questions to answer about each experience.  The memories are given ratings based on how positive or negative they were to the participant.

There are many things that effect subjective well being.  Studies have shown that having enough money to make purchases increases happiness.  And thus, having a job that provides the means to make those purchases.  Things like relaxation and sexual intimacy also increase happiness.  “Receiving social support is clearly linked to better coping with life’s stresses, as you will see later in this chapter, but having opportunities to give social support is also a key ingredient in happiness” (Broderick, 2014, p. 530). Those who lack personal relationships in life aren’t as happy.  Marriages also contribute to happiness.  People also find happiness when they work is something that suits their skills and personality.

The common theme in creating well being was interpersonal relationships.  As health care providers, we can help foster these relationships to help keep happiness levels high in our aging population. Humans have a universal need to relate with other humans.

Broderick, P. C., Blewitt, P. (01/2014). Life Span, The: Human Development for Helping Professionals, 4th Edition [VitalSource Bookshelf version]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/books/9781269907422

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