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Probation and parole sanctions from the court that fall under the community corrections area of the criminal justice system. The two sanctions are often confused and are judged to be the same type function to the uneducated or misinformed person. Parole is defined as a pre-release condition often granted to those already incarcerated with in the correctional facility. Parole is a privilege granted by a group of people who are on what is called a parole board. These men and women assigned to the board will review each inmate or clients profile and their request for parole. Parole is a community corrections sanction so the community is taken into consideration when a client is up for parole and or requests parole. The community and the public have a great impact on whether an inmate will be granted parole or not.

Probation is another sanction provided by the court, however the client or defendant doe not serve any jail time but is given a set of objectives to reach and abide by while on probation set by the court. The court determines if a person is able to be on probation this means the type of offense is taken into consideration and the history of the defendant. Probation is a release condition for a defendant and if the said person fails to comply with the guidelines of the court for their probation will be objected to incarceration. Probation is more common in first time offenders and or persons who may be as risk and do not need the incarceration as part of their rehabilitation process. The goal of the community corrections is to help rehabilitate and integrate persons who have committed crimes against the community or individuals. They pay their dues whether it’d be through restitution, civil tort, community service and or incarceration. There are times where all three are involved.

John Augustus, the “Father of Probation,” is recognized as the first true probation officer. Augustus was born in Woburn, Massachusetts in 1785. By 1829, he was a permanent resident of Boston and the owner of a successful boot-making business. Probation can also be taken back to the English times where harsh punishments were always imposed on defendants. As time went on it was realized that defendants should have the chance to prove themselves hence the later term from probation which meant to prove and or test. Augustus was subsequently credited with founding the investigations process, one of three main concepts of modern probation, the other two being intake and supervision. Augustus, who kept detailed notes on his activities, was also the first to apply the term “probation” to his method of treating offenders. The first probation statute, enacted in Massachusetts shortly after this death in 1859, was widely attributed to his efforts.

Following the passage of that first statute, probation spread gradually throughout the United States. The juvenile court movement contributed greatly to the development of probation as a legally-recognized method of dealing with offenders. The first juvenile court was established in Chicago in 1899. Formalization of the intake process is credited to the founders of the Illinois juvenile court. Soon after, 30 states introduced probation as a part of the juvenile court procedure. Today, all states offer both juvenile and adult probation.

Alexander Maconochie, a Scottish geographer and captain in the Royal Navy, introduced the modern idea of parole, in 1840, he was appointed superintendent of the British penal colonies in Norfolk Island, Australia. He developed a plan to prepare them for eventual return to society that involved three grades. The first two consisted of promotions earned through good behavior, labor, and study. The third grade in the system involved conditional liberty outside of prison while obeying rules. A violation would return them to prison and they would start all over again through the ranks of the three-grade process

He reformed its ticket of leave system, instituting what many consider the world’s first parole system Prisoners served indeterminate sentences from which they could be released early if they showed evidence of rehabilitation through participation in a graded classification system based on a unit of exchange called a mark Inmates / clients earned marks through good behavior, lost them through bad behavior and could spend them on passage to higher classification statuses ultimately conveying freedom. In an instance of multiple discovery, in 1846, Arnould Bonneville de Marsangy proposed the idea of parole (which he termed “preparatory liberation”) to the Civil Tribunal at Reims

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