# Week 11: Introduction to Categorical Data Analysis

To this point, all tests that you have explored require the use of at least one metric variable. As you have been moving through the course, you have probably asked, â€œwhat do I do if I need to test the relationship between categorical variables?â€ Categorical data analysis provides us with the tools to test relationships between the plethora of qualitative variables embedded within the social world. Categorical data analysis is a large field and we will be just dipping our toes in the water, but you will be provided with enough information to understand some of the special considerations and interpretations that you must take.

This week, you will examine categorical data analysis. In your examination you will construct research questions, evaluate research design, and analyze results related to categorical data analysis.

## Learning Objectives

###### Students will:
• Construct research questions
• Evaluate research design through research questions
• Analyze bivariate categorical tests
• Analyze measures for bivariate categorical tests
• Evaluate significance of multiple regression
• Analyze results for multiple regression testing
• Analyze assumptions of bivariate categorical tests
• Analyze implications for social change

Photo Credit: [Image Source]/[Image Source]/Getty Images

# Learning Resources

Frankfort-Nachmias, C., & Leon-Guerrero, A. (2015).
Social statistics for a diverse society (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

• Chapter 10, â€œBivariate Tablesâ€ (pp. 303â€“346)
• Chapter 11, â€œThe Chi-Square Test and Measures of Associationâ€ (pp. 347â€“387)

#### Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2016a).
Bivariate categorical tests [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 5 minutes.

In this media program, Dr. Matt Jones demonstrates bivariate categorical tests using the SPSS software.

#### Optional Resources

https://istats.shinyapps.io/ChiSquaredTest/

Use the following app/weblink to enter your own data and obtain an interactive visual display.

# Discussion: Categorical Data Analysis

As with the previous weekâ€™s Discussion, this Discussion assists in solidifying your understanding of statistical testing by engaging in some data analysis. This week you will once again work with a real, secondary dataset to construct a research question, perform categorical data analysis that answers the question, and interpret the results.

Whether in a scholarly or practitioner setting, good research and data analysis should have the benefit of peer feedback. For this Discussion, you will post your response to the hypothesis test, along with the results. Be sure and remember that the goal is to obtain constructive feedback to improve the research and its interpretation, so please view this as an opportunity to learn from one another.

To prepare for this Discussion:

• Review Chapters 10 and 11 of the Frankfort-Nachmias & Leon-Guerrero course text and the media program found in this weekâ€™s Learning Resources related to bivariate categorical tests.
• Create a research question using the General Social Survey dataset that can be answered using categorical analysis.

#### By Day 3

Use SPSS to answer the research question. Post your response to the following:

1. What is your research question?
2. What is the null hypothesis for your question?
3. What research design would align with this question?
4. What dependent variable was used and how is it measured?
5. What independent variable is used and how is it measured?
6. If you found significance, what is the strength of the effect?
7. Explain your results for a lay audience and further explain what the answer is to your research question.

Be sure to support your Main Post and Response Post with reference to the weekâ€™s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA Style.

#### By Day 5

Respond to at least one of your colleaguesâ€™ posts and comment on the following:

1. Do you think the variables are appropriately used? Why or why not?
2. Does the analysis answer the research question? Be sure and provide constructive and helpful comments for possible improvement.
3. As a lay reader, were you able to understand the results and their implications? Why or why not?

# Assignment: Testing for Bivariate Categorical Analysis

You have had plenty of practice with data analysis in the Discussions and hopefully you have received helpful and encouraging feedback from your colleagues. Now, for the last time in the course, it is time once again to put all of that good practice to use and answer a social research question using categorical statistical tools. As you begin the Assignment, be sure and pay close attention to the assumptions of the test. Specifically, make sure the variables are categorical level variables.

For this Assignment, you will consider three different scenarios. Each of these scenarios include a research question. You will examine each scenario, choose a categorical data analysis and run a sample test.

To prepare for this Assignment:

• Review Chapters 10 and 11 of the Frankfort-Nachmias & Leon-Guerrero course text and the media program found in this weekâ€™s Learning Resources related to bivariate categorical tests.
• Using the SPSS software, open the Afrobarometer dataset found in this weekâ€™s Learning Resources.
• Next, review the Chi Square Scenarios found in this weekâ€™s Learning Resources and consider each research scenario for this Assignment.
• Based on the dataset you chose and for each research scenario provided, using the SPSS software, choose a categorical data analysis and run a sample test.
• Once you perform your categorical data analysis, review Chapter 11 of the Wagner text to understand how to copy and paste your output into your Word document.

For this Assignment:

Write a 1- to 2-paragraph analysis of your categorical data results for each research scenario. In your analysis, display the data for the output. Based on your results, provide an explanation of what the implications of social change might be.

Use proper APA format, citations, and referencing for your analysis, research question, and display of output.

#### By Day 7

Submit your Assignment: Testing for Bivariate Categorical Analysis.

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

• Please save your Assignment using the naming convention â€œWK11Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)â€ as the name.
• Click the Week 11 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
• Click the Week 11 Assignment link. You will also be able to â€œView Rubricâ€ for grading criteria from this area.
• Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as â€œWK11Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)â€ and click Open.
• If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
• Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.