week 4

Assignment #1


APA FORMAT 300 words 


The Lesson this week addresses the fifth course objective, specifically, how the Presidency operates.

From the readings in Lesson 3, we discussed Congress’s quandry regarding the employment of combat forces abroad. During the Vietnam Conflict, President Nixon employed hundreds of thousands of combat forces into Southeast Asia without approval of Congress. Eventually, Congress felt compelled to pass the War Powers Resolution of 1973 (over his veto). As such, the president can still employ troops abroad to defend US interests, but then is required to notify Congress of the employment within 48 hours, and then withdraw them within 60 days – unless Congress formally declares war or authorizes the use of military force. However, subsequent presidents have not all followed this Resolution. This has caused a rift between the president and Congress that still exists today.

For this Forum assignment, please discuss the issue of how American military forces should be employed in conflict abroad. Is it strictly the president’s call? What is Congress’s role? Are the restrictions in the War Powers Resolution of 1973 realistic? How should this issue be resolved? Please use examples in your post.   


Assignment #2


APA Format 250 words- choose only one question 



Please select ONE of the following questions for your initial response and then comment on at least two other classmates who wrote on different questions.

1) The influence of scholar Richard White’s work on North American history is incontestable, but perhaps it has gone too far. What might be called “the middle grounding of early American history” has led scholars to exaggerate the extent of “ethnic mixing” in colonial North America. “Ethnic cleansing,” after all, was the chief legacy of European colonialism in North America – both before and after 1776. Evaluate this position, assessing the soundness of its thesis and the validity of its critique of recent scholarship on colonial and national North American frontiers (including ones which do not lie within the present boundaries of the United States). 

2) Pick a legend from any Native American group. They are listed below in alphabetical order and in the Week 3 powerpoint.

Compare and contrast at least two Native American stories about the creation of the world or human beings. What do these stories suggest about the relationship between human beings and creation? Human beings and animals? Between groups of human beings? Men and women? Different generations? Roles and responsibilities within the community?


3) In his book, The Roots of Dependency, Richard White argues that the military superiority of Europeans fails to account for their ability to conquer indigenous peoples and colonize new territories. “Military force,” writes White, “was rarely employed for its own sake; it served other interests. The threat of force merely expedited the working of more elementary factors – political, economic, and cultural. Force often explains how change took place; it does not explain why it took place.” Do you agree with this assessment? What factors other than military force explain why Europeans were able to assert their dominance? How did these factors both inhibit and encourage the dependency of North American Indians?
4) How were European captives treated by American Indians? 

5) Historians have frequently classified the responses of indigenous peoples around the globe to the invasion of Europeans as either “nativist” or “accommodationist.” How useful are these terms in describing and evaluating the strategies of Indian peoples in the post-contact period? Can you propose an alternative typology which more accurately characterizes the reactions of indigenous peoples to European invasion?

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