Week 8: Reflection & Summary

Disaster Response and Hostage Negotiation

There appears to be an increase in hostage situations around the globe in recent years. Your readings this week take you to the world of Crisis/Hostage negotiation, addressing both a hostage taker, as well as the hostages in such a situation.

You will also learn about large scale disaster relief in cases such as natural disasters or racial and ethnic intolerance.

Resources

International Association of Hostage Negotiators (www.hostagenegotiation.com) is typical of crisis/hostage websites in that it is mainly members-only and particularly geared towards law enforcement. However, this website does have some good information and links, and also has audio of an actual hostage situation being negotiated.

Read the assigned chapters from James this week and discuss the following:

  1. What is the worst eco-systemic crisis you can imagine? Why?
  2. Are we better at managing some types of eco-systemic crises than others? If so, what are they? Why?
  3. What kind of training, education, and experience do you believe should be required to be an effective and competent manager of a crisis such as the scenario one described above?
  4. Given a natural disaster such as is contained in this scenario, how do you go about coordinating and communicating an effective response?
  5. When the crisis situation exceeds your local capacities and resources to respond, how and when do you decide to call for help, and who do you call?

    CHAPTER Fifteen Crisis/Hostage Negotiation

    ∗ Crisis intervention is the core of hostage negotiation ∗ Most crises involving barricade situations occur in the home,

    are unplanned, and involve males who are enraged by domestic disputes

    ∗ 12% involve hostages

    ∗ 52% of all hostage takings are instigated by mentally ill or emotionally disturbed individuals

    ∗ Violence is rising in the workplace and acts of hostage taking occur there

    Background

    ∗ Psychological dynamics of people who survive being held hostage are not unlike those of victims of battering, coerced prostitutes, and abused children

    ∗ It is not uncommon for potential suicides and domestic violence situations to end up as barricade or hostage situations

    ∗ As a result of crisis intervention theory and techniques, more than 95% of crisis/hostage situations are resolved peacefully

    Background Cont.

    ∗ Types of Hostage Takers ∗ Instrumental ∗ Expressive

    ∗ The Mentally Disturbed ∗ The Schizophrenic Personality ∗ The Bipolar Personality ∗ The Inadequate/Dependent Personality ∗ The Antisocial Personality ∗ The Borderline Personality

    Dynamics of Hostage Taking

    ∗ Other Hostage Takers ∗ The Estranged Person ∗ The Institutionalized Individual ∗ The Wronged Person ∗ Alcohol and Substance Abuse

    ∗ Stages and Dynamics of a Hostage Situation ∗ Alarm ∗ Crisis ∗ Accommodation ∗ Stockholm Syndrome ∗ Resolution

    Dynamics of Hostage Taking Cont.

    ∗ REACT ∗ Recognition of needed conditions ∗ Engagement builds rapport and facilitates ventilation and

    validation ∗ Assessment continuously evaluates the physical risks to all parties ∗ Contracting/Controlling

    ∗ Facilitating an agreement on how to resolve the incident ∗ Planning out how it will be resolved ∗ Helping the perpetrator with his or her ambivalence ∗ Controlling how the surrender will occur so that nothing goes wrong ∗ Gaining surrender of the hostage taker and release of the hostages

    ∗ Terminating/Transferring is arranging for follow-up care

    Intervention Models

    ∗ S.A.F.E. ∗ Substantive issues are the initial demands made

    by the subject and the return demands of the negotiator.

    ∗ Attunement is the degree of relational trust, respect, and desire to cooperate with another party.

    ∗ Face is the self-image of the parties that is either threatened or honored (saving face).

    ∗ Emotion is the degree of emotional distress experienced by both parties.

    Intervention Models Cont.

    ∗ Communication Techniques ∗ Cultural Factors ∗ Recognition and Assessment ∗ Controlling and Contracting ∗ Transferring

    ∗ Containing the Scene ∗ Inner and outer perimeters are secured around the hostage scene and

    a command post is established in the inner perimeter ∗ Gathering Information

    ∗ The most important and time-sensitive information that the negotiator needs is a profile of the hostage taker

    ∗ Who are the hostages? ∗ What are the specifications of the hostage site?

    Intervention Strategies

    ∗ Stabilizing the Situation ∗ Contain and stabilize the situation ∗ Calm the hostage taker and build rapport ∗ Allow the hostage taker the opportunity to ventilate

    feelings ∗ Use “I” statements and reflective summaries

    ∗ Persuading the Hostage Taker to Give Up ∗ Start by negotiating smaller issues first be clear that the

    hostage taker gets nothing without giving something in return

    ∗ The Crisis Worker as Consultant ∗ Controversial issue

    Intervention Strategies Cont.

    ∗ Ensure your own safety. ∗ Avoid soliciting demands the negotiator cannot or will not

    keep. ∗ Listen for and remember clues regarding the perpetrator’s

    emotional state so you can pass that information on to the negotiator.

    ∗ Do not offer anything to the perpetrator of a material nature.

    ∗ Minimize the seriousness of the perpetrator’s crime. ∗ Do not refer to anybody as “hostage.” ∗ Do not try to trick the hostage taker or be dishonest.

    If You Are Put in the Role of Negotiator

    ∗ Never give an absolute no or yes to a demand. ∗ Do not be creative in making suggestions or putting

    thoughts in the perpetrator’s mind. ∗ If the perpetrator seems suicidal, ask about it, and

    adopt a suicide prevention mode. ∗ No relatives, friends, bosses, or anybody else needs to

    be brought to the scene unless the negotiator decides to do so later. If they are already at the scene, it is probably best to get them away from it.

    ∗ Do not offer to exchange yourself.

    If You Are Put in the Role of Negotiator Cont.

    ∗ Do not be a hero. ∗ Follow instructions. ∗ Do not speak unless spoken to. ∗ Do not make suggestions. ∗ Try to rest and eat. ∗ Carefully weigh escape options. ∗ Request aid if needed. ∗ Be observant. ∗ Do not be argumentative. ∗ Be patient.

    If You are Held Hostage

    ∗ Avoid standing out. ∗ Treat captives with deference and respect. ∗ Do not slight the seriousness of the situation by

    attempting to inject humor into it. ∗ Be careful of trickery. ∗ Do not embarrass your captors. ∗ Keep your confidence and self-esteem. ∗ Keep to routines. ∗ Use fantasy, day dreaming, and future planning. ∗ When rescue comes, follow the rescuers’ directions

    precisely.

    If You are Held Hostage Cont.

    ∗ Stockholm Syndrome ∗ Acute Stress Disorder ∗ Postincident Interview ∗ Crisis Intervention With Hostage Survivors

    ∗ Initial Debriefing ∗ Subsequent Intervention Procedures

    ∗ Crisis Intervention with the Hostage Negotiator

    Intervention After Release

    • CHAPTER Fifteen Crisis/Hostage Negotiation
    • Background
    • Background Cont.
    • Dynamics of Hostage Taking
    • Dynamics of Hostage Taking Cont.
    • Intervention Models
    • Intervention Models Cont.
    • Intervention Strategies
    • Intervention Strategies Cont.
    • If You Are Put in the Role of Negotiator
    • If You Are Put in the Role of Negotiator Cont.
    • If You are Held Hostage
    • If You are Held Hostage Cont.
    • Intervention After Release

       

       Women’s movement in the 1960s and 1970s  Community Mental Health Act, 1963  Disaster Relief Act, 1974

      • Section 413  Federal Emergency Management Agency (1978)  Classification of PTSD as a personality disorder in the

      DSM-III (1980)  American Red Cross establishes a mental health

      certification program (1990s) • Hurricane Hugo • Loma Prieta earthquake

       San Fernando, CA, earthquake of 1971 • “Quake-proofing kids”

       Severe Flooding in 1972: • Rapid City, South Dakota • Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania

      • Operation Outreach • Logan County, West Virginia

       Hurricane Katrina, 2005 • FEMA

       The European Network for Traumatic Stress (TENTS) • Funded by the European Union • Provides services, expertise, and support to areas of the Union

      that lack resources and availability of trained personnel

       United Nations’ Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) • Published IASC Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial

      Input Support in Emergency Situations

       September 11, 2001 • Homeland Security Act

       Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City  Violence in Schools:

      • Columbine, CO • Virginia Tech University

       International Events: • Suicide bombs in Israel • Hostage situation in a Russian theatre and school • Drug related guerrilla warfare in Mexico

       Hyper-vigilance  Repetitive and Graphic Media Coverage

       An ecosystemic crisis is any disruptive or destructive event that occurs at a rate and magnitude beyond the ability of the normal social process to control it.

      • Impacts an entire community, region, nation, or the entire world • Sudden • Slow buildup • Human-made • Natural disaster • One intense episode • Several compounding incidents

      Types of Ecosystemic crises: • Metastisizing Crises

      • Start small but, if not contained both physically and psychologically, can quickly turn into large-scale crises

      • Large-Scale Crises • At a minimum affect whole communities or regions

      either directly or vicariously

      • Mega-crises • Affect entire countries or the world, either directly or

      vicariously

      Microsystem Mesosystem

      • Primary Mesosystem • Super Mesosystem

       Exosystem Macrosystem  Chronosystem

      • The Individual • The Society

       Systems must be interdisciplinary

       The system must be multitheoretical

       Individuals are part of the ecosystem

       Multiple contexts must be considered

       Time is of the essence

       Meaning is important

       Parsimonious interventions are needed

       The process is cooperative, collaborative, and consultative

       There is a full range of targeted interventions aimed at individuals, institutions, communities, and nationals

       The service characteristics of credibility, acceptability, accessibility, proactivity, continuance, and confidentiality should be adopted as “cast in stone” goals for service delivery in disaster-stricken areas

       National Crisis Response Teams • Development of Crisis Response Teams (CRTs) • National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA) CRTs • The Red Cross • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)

       Professional Organizations

       Constructing an Outreach Team

       Vertically and Horizontally Integrated Local Emergency Management Systems

      • Role of Local EMA Directors • Background and Training • What Do Emergency Managers Do? • Planning for Disasters

       Mental Health Components of Local EMAs • Personnel • Transdisaster (0–14 Days) • Postdisaster (15–365 Days)

       Lack of efficient communication  Poor coordination plans  Ambiguous authority relationships  Who’s in charge? Everyone shifts the blame  Counterterrorism versus all-hazards response  Ambiguous training standards and lack of preparation  Where is the “learning” in lessons learned?  Performance assessment was not integrated into the process  The geography of poverty  Rumor and chaos  Personal and community preparedness  Disaster mental health and the role of mental health

      professionals

       Psychological First Aid and Psychosocial Support as Applied to Disaster Survivors

      • Make initial contact in a respectful manner • Gather and provide information regarding immediate physical and

      safety concerns • Provide and direct people in regard to practical assistance needed • Provide for their safety and comfort by linking them with social

      services • Teach them basic coping skills if requested • Get information and help that will connect them to social supports

       When More Than PFA Is Needed

       The Current State of Affairs

       Debriefing • An intervention designed to assist workers and survivors in dealing with

      intense thoughts, feelings, and reactions that occur after a traumatic event, and to decrease their impact and facilitate the recovery of normal people having normal reactions to abnormal events

       Debriefing Emergency Workers • Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) • Informal Defusing • Formal Debriefing

       Debriefing Crisis Workers • The Need for Debriefing • Precautions • Dynamics of Debriefing • Confidentiality • Understanding

      • Chapter Seventeen: Disaster Response
      • A Brief History of Disaster �Mental Health Provision
      • Natural Disasters with a Significant Impact on Disaster Response
      • Worldwide Disaster Mental Health
      • International Terrorism and �Human-Made Disasters
      • Ecosystemic Crises
      • Ecosystemic Crises Cont.
      • System Overview
      • Principles of a �Crisis Intervention Ecosystem
      • Principles of a �Crisis Intervention Ecosystem
      • Response Teams
      • Local Emergency Management Systems
      • What Happened With Katrina?
      • Psychological First Aid
      • Focus on the Worker
 
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