Case Study .. Psychology

case study … any topic… about psychology …. 2500-3000 words. sample of how it should look like in the drop box

Mwaisumo 1

Relation Between Dementia, Depression and Anxiety and the Impact of Losing a Loved One. Comment by Ed Schultze: Excellent


It is estimated that over 44million adults have a mental health condition in the United States whereas the rate of youth experiencing a mental health condition continues to rise from 11.93% to 12.63% (Mental Health America). Mental illness refers to a wide range of mental health conditions disorders that affect people’s mood, thinking and behavior. Mental illness disorders include; depression, anxiety and addictive behaviors. When people experience mental health concerns from time to time, becomes a mental health as ongoing signs and symptoms cause frequent stress and affect ability to function. Mental illness disorders have been a big challenge to many people as it causes problems to people’s lives such as in relationships, work and in the family. From the mental illness disorders, the following is a discussion about depression and anxiety. Comment by Ed Schultze: Nice way to start. Numbers/stats really make a paper stand out Comment by Ed Schultze: Conditions/disorders or conditions and/or disorders Comment by Ed Schultze: Minor point better to just use addiction. There is more to addiction than addictive behaviors

Depression refers to an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way a person eats, sleeps, feels about himself or herself. Depression is a common and serious medical disorder that negatively affects people’s mood and behavior. People suffering from depression normally experience persistent feelings of sadness and hopeless and always lose interest in activities they once enjoyed. According to the Journal of the American Medical Association, the lifetime incidence of depression in the United States is more than 20-26% for women and 8-12% for men (Lieber, A,2018). Depression can happen at any age, but often begins in the teens or early 20s or 30s. Comment by Ed Schultze: Good Comment by Ed Schultze: Avoid absolutes; you likely will not be able to defend them. Instead consider qualifiers such as: “most of the time, may, could, likely, characteristically, expectedly’, see comment below Comment by Ed Schultze: Good use of research. It seems to me these staats differ from NIMH stats

There various types of depression, some of them are;

· Major Depression: this depression usually refers to depressive in general. Major depression is also known as unipolar. Major depression involves a low mood, losing interest of something that once used to be enjoyable. This depression normally last for at least two weeks or longer and can be classified as mild, moderate or sew. The Unipolar depression signifies a difference between major depression and bipolar depression. Bipolar depressive is an oscillating state depression and mania whereas, Unipolar depression is solely focused on the lows or the negative emotion and symptoms that a person may have experienced. Comment by Ed Schultze: The depressive episode the depression lasts indefinitely Comment by Ed Schultze: severe

· Psychotic Depression: psychotic depression is a subtype of major depression that occurs when a severe depressive illness includes some form of psychosis. People with psychosis may hear voices or they may have strange illogical ideas. Such people usually think that other people can hear their thoughts or are trying to harm them. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, a person who is psychotic is out of touch with reality (Goldberg, J,2017).

· Catatonic Depression: This type of depression is characterized by the inability of a person to move normally. People that suffer from this type of depression usually remain motionless and speechless for a long period of time.

· Melancholic Depression: This type of depression makes people move more slowly. Also, such people normally suffer from low mood, sadness and often lose pleasure in almost everything.

· Agitated depression: Agitated depression is also known as mixed mania and occurs more among middle aged and elderly people than children and teens. This depression is a major depressive disorder with restlessness and motor excitement. Medical experts describe agitated depression as anxious depression or distraught depression.

· Situational Depression: This type of depression is also known as adjustment disorder. This type of depression occurs after a traumatic change such as change in person’s life, divorce, losing a job or death of a close loved one.

· Bipolar disorders: These disorders also known as manic disorders, generally alternate from extremely low moods to periods of extreme highs. Bipolar causes serious shifts in mood, energy, thinking, and behavior from the highs of mania on one extreme, to the lows of depression on the other. Bipolar disorder symptoms include excitement, poor judgement, racing thoughts and high energy. There are four subtypes under these disorders.

1. Bipolar 1: characterized by people who have at least one manic episode.

· Bipolar 11: Characterized by mild hypomanic episodes as well as depression.

· Cyclothymic disorder: Having chronic fluctuating moods in a period at least two years or more. Comment by Ed Schultze: I like your list it is good

Depression has many symptoms including:

· Feelings of sadness, tearfulness, emptiness or hopelessness

· Angry outbursts

· Irritability or frustration, even over small matters

· Loss of interest or pleasure in most or all normal activities, such as sex, hobbies or sports

· Sleep disturbances, including insomnia or sleeping too much

· Tiredness and lack of energy, so even small tasks take extra effort

· Anxiety, agitation or restlessness

· Decreased energy or fatigue

· Slowed thinking, speaking or body movements

· Feelings of worthlessness or guilt, fixating on past failures or self-blame

· Trouble thinking, concentrating, making decisions and remembering things

· Frequent or recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts or suicide

· Moving or talking so slowly Comment by Ed Schultze: Or rapidly

· Loss of appetite or weight changes

· Unexplained physical problems, such as back pain or headaches

Anxiety is an emotional characterized by feelings of tension, worried thought and physical changes like increased blood pressure. The Anxiety Disorders Association of America reports that anxiety disorder is the most common mental health condition in America, affecting around 18 percent of the entire population (Thorpe, Jr, 2016) Comment by Ed Schultze: Anxiety may be characterized by:…..

There several types of anxiety disorders, these include;

· Generalized anxiety disorder: this type of depression is marked by excessive anxiety for no logical reasons. GAC is diagnosed when extreme worry about a variety of things lasts six months or longer. Comment by Ed Schultze: GAD Comment by Ed Schultze: There are many more components

· Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD); Obsessive Compulsive Disorder results in repeated, unwanted thoughts and rituals that interfere with everyday living. People with OCD may feel overwhelmed with the desire to perform rituals (compulsions) repeatedly or experience intrusive and unwanted thoughts that can be distressing (obsessions). Common obsessions include concerns about cleanliness or aggressive impulsive.

· Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); PTSD develops after people have experienced or witnessed something traumatic. The traumatic experience that triggers PTSD may be prompted by a variety of events, such as serving in the military or being the victim of rape or childhood abuse.

· Social anxiety disorder; this disorder involves a paralyzing fear of social situations and of being judged or humiliated by others. This severe social phobia can leave one feeling ashamed and alone. Comment by Ed Schultze: This is now referred to as Social Phobia

· Panic Disorder; this type of disorder is characterized by panic attacks. Panic attacks usually subside after about half an hour but can leave people feeling fatigue. Physical symptoms of panic disorder include heart palpitations, chest pain, and shortness of breath.

Symptoms of anxiety disorders include;

· Panic, fear, and uneasiness

· Sleep problems

· Not being able to stay calm and still

· Cold, sweaty, numb or tingling hands or feet

· Shortness of breath

· Heart palpitations

· Dry mouth

· Nausea

· Tense muscles

· Dizziness

Relationship between Anxiety Disorder and Depression and Dementia.

Anxiety and Depression disorders are not the same but have similar elements. As depression is mostly considered a low energy state, anxiety is considered a high energy state. Depressed people often experience emotions such as hopelessness and anger. Such people often are overwhelmed by their relationships and daily activities tasks. While for the people with anxiety disorder, experience fear and panic. In today’s world, most people suffer from both anxiety and depression. Depression exacerbated by anxiety has a higher suicidal rate than depression alone. According to one study, 92% of depressed patients who had attempted suicide were also plagued by severe anxiety (Croft, H, 2016). Both depression and anxiety have similar treatment. The dementia-to-depression in the potentially causal relationship between the two disorders is supported by findings that people with dementia appear to have a higher prevalence of depression. However, prevalence rates vary widely depending on the study population (psychiatric outpatients, Alzheimer registries, old-age homes), instruments used, and diagnostic definitions. Comment by Ed Schultze: May be considered Comment by Ed Schultze: Be a little careful here. Individuals with anxiety may also experience problems with relationships and daily activities. This is a case study and not a research paper so this is not critical Comment by Ed Schultze: Not really You can probably assert that many experience both Comment by Ed Schultze: Excellent Comment by Ed Schultze: ‘dementia to depression hypothesis, connection, ???? Comment by Ed Schultze: yes Comment by Ed Schultze: excellent qualification

The main purpose of the following case study was to examine how people with dementia can have possible symptoms of depression and anxiety. The study focused more on the individual’s behavior change and the treatment they were provided. The study also showed how one can be affected after witnessing a death of the spouse since it is a traumatic event. Comment by Ed Schultze: he was provided or the subject was provided

A case Study of a 68 Years Old Man suffering from Dementia with depression and Anxiety and a 50 years old Lady Impacted by The Husband’s Death. Comment by Ed Schultze: excellent You get special credit for depth and scope


Mr. John is a 68 years old man who lives at Frederick MD. John has been an elementary teacher at Lincoln for 4o years. He retired at the age of 60 whereby, he decided to sometimes travel in different places he never did. Mr. John enjoys playing golf and football. He has been a fan of Redskins since childhood. Teaching has been the best part of his life. He enjoyed having children around him, making them laugh as well as teaching them the proper way of behaving and talking to one another. He was known as the kindest teacher that ever existed at Lincoln elementary school. John was a sport teacher and taught children how to play various games. He is always remembered by many especially the kids who experienced their lives with him. Comment by Ed Schultze: good for him for playing football at 68 that may be rare

John and his wife Mary were able to have three children. The oldest son is in his early 30s, the second in the late 20s and the last who is a female, in her early 20s. All his three children have their own children, making John have six grandchildren in total. During vacations and holidays especially in Christmas and Thanksgiving, John, Mary and the three children with their families would spend together at Frederick MD. John is always exited meeting his children and grandchildren during holidays. They rarely see each other, hence when they meet, they all become so excited. John enjoys spending time at the parks as well as visiting museums in Baltimore and Washington DC with his grandchildren. During nighttime, while looking at the stars, John would always tell a lot of stories to his grandchildren about how their parents used to be and do at their early and late childhood. The attachment between John and his grandchildren was so strong. His grandchildren would always count down days to meet their grandfather before having holidays.

Due to passion of children to the students, John always visited Lincoln elementary schools and see how the school has been going on. John knew each area of the Lincoln elementary that he could never get lost each year he visited the school. All staff members would be exited seeing John at school. John participated a lot of school activities for children because he enjoyed. John would play basketball and attend some of the school’s parties. Such kind of activities made John enjoy his life more.

One morning, as his usual schedule, John decided to visit the elementary school. During evening, walking around the school, John could not recognize were he parked his car. For the first time since John has been in the school, he asked one of the teachers where the parking lot was. John did not understand what the problem was and did not take it as a serious matter. Comment by Ed Schultze: good this seems very real

Dementia is a situation that occurs when there is loss of cognitive functioning, thinking, remembering, reasoning and behavioral abilities to such an extent that it interferes with a person’s daily life and activities. These functions include memory, language skills, visual perception, problem solving, self-management, and the ability to focus and pay attention. As seen above, among the signs of dementia is when a person does not remember some stuffs happening in his or her life. John’s situation of not having the ability to remember some stuffs and forgetting what he did in a short period of time made the family realize that he may be having a dementia problem. When he was taken to the hospital, they realized that he had an Alzheimer’s Disease which is the common cause of his dementia. Mary reported to the doctor that her husband had experienced marked impairment in his ability to engage in activities of daily living over the past months. Mary also reported a gradual decline in her husband’s cognitive functioning, including poor memory, especially for conversations and instructions, and disorientation. Cognitive functions are mental processes that allow people to carry out any task. They allow the subject to have an active role in the processes of receiving, choosing, transforming, storing, processing and retrieval of information, allowing the subject to navigate the world around him or her (Neuro up). Checking John’s condition, he had a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and prostate cancer but he was never diagnosed or treated. One of the factors Mary mentioned to the doctor is that his husband sometimes used to be anxious. Comment by Ed Schultze: include problems or limitations or impaired function in: memory…. Comment by Ed Schultze: Some events or some information… Comment by Ed Schultze: Avoid absolutes; you likely will not be able to defend them. Instead consider qualifiers such as: “most of the time, may, could, likely, characteristically, expectedly’, see comment below

Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills and, eventually, the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. The disease is named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer. In 1906, Dr. Alzheimer noticed changes in the brain tissue of a woman who had died of an unusual mental illness. Her symptoms included memory loss, language problems, and unpredictable behavior. After she died, he examined her brain and found many abnormal clumps (now called amyloid plaques) and tangled bundles of fibers (now called neurofibrillary, or tau, tangles). Alzheimer’s disease falls under Dementia. Dementia occurs due to a variety of conditions, the most common of which is Alzheimer’s disease. (NIH, 2017).

Mary had a difficult time living with his husband in such condition. John’s depression and anxiety behaviors were so overwhelming for Mary. Mary’s effort of needing to support her husband also became so exhausted for her. Each one of them became depressed in a different way. John was more depressed whenever he forgot where he kept some of his stuffs and not accepting that he needed help and could not drive anymore. The wife was also depressed seeing the husband’s condition. Due to depression, John lacked enough sleep and he would sometimes wake up in the middle of the night. John lacked appetite whereby he could not eat his favorite food he used to enjoy. John was also frustrated with a lot of issues. When his grandchildren visited, John could not go out in the parks or travel to museums as he used to because, he thought he was a useless grandfather. John never asked of going to Lincoln and pay a visit to the teachers and students anymore. Comment by Ed Schultze: This can be a very significant turning point for many, for the individual and for the caretakers

When John retired, Mary has been the one working because she enjoys keeping herself busy. Mary is just 50 years old. Mary has a small business whereby she owns a bakery store. Mary sells various baked products such as cakes and bread in her store. Mary’s business has been doing great for the past months. But since Mary had been depressed recently, the depression led her business not doing great. Due to depression, Mary had difficulty sleeping as she could not go to sleep early and normally woke up during the night. Mary lost appetite and was always anxious too. Comment by Ed Schultze: Avoid absolutes; you likely will not be able to defend them. Instead consider qualifiers such as: “most of the time, may, could, likely, characteristically, expectedly’, see comment below

Few months later, John’s condition got worsen because of medical issues. The chronic obstructive disease as well as post cancer made John’s condition get worsen. Mary and children decided to hospitalize John. John was hospitalized for about seven months. After he was discharged, John could not have balance in walking. John would fall and sometimes he would scream and cry when that happened. With all of what was going on, John’s children advised their mother to send their dad in an assistant home living since she could not take care of their father by herself. Being in an assistant living home, made John more depressed and he always started overgeneralizing things. John would always think that the wife and children abandoned him, and they never loved him anymore although they used to visit him often. John also had a change in his behavior. According to the doctors, it was discovered that John was diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder and specific phobia (fear of falling). The initial assessment revealed that John worried frequently about being left alone and being abandoned. He was also fearful of falling and staying in his wheelchair, even though his physical condition would have allowed him to walk short distances. John’s symptoms included poor sleep, low energy, trembling and heart palpitations. While in an assistant home living, John’s physical therapy always encouraged John to try walking and have speech. The therapist would always ask John to speak about the family or his life.

Mary and the children also participated on John’s physical therapy. John started participating in some sessions over weeks. John met with a therapist once a week with session for about half an hour. The first session John had, mostly focused more on anxiety monitoring and deep breathing. The lesson about deep breathing enabled John to use whenever he felt anxious. John would always be asked to take a deep breath by the therapist. Later, John was introduced in a behavior activation session known as cognitive behavioral therapy.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common type of talk therapy (psychotherapy) whereby one works with a mental health counselor (psychotherapist or therapist) in a structured way, attending a limited number of sessions. Cognitive Behavior Therapy helps a person become aware of inaccurate or negative thinking so that he/she can view challenging situations more clearly and respond to them in a more effective way (Mayo clinic staff). Cognitive Behavior Therapy also aims to reduce anxiety by teaching coping skills to deal with stress that may accompany Post Traumatic Disorder.  The main goal for this therapy is to teach people to react differently to their symptoms.  This is done through teaching different types of coping skills, but is not limited to, breathing retraining, muscle relaxation, cognitive restructuring, and assertiveness skills (Bell, E). John’s children got involved in their father’s therapy. His children would always assist their father during walking sessions using a walker. John could not agree to cooperate more with other care givers than his children. When the care givers from the assistant home living would try helping him, John would sometimes curse them or treat the caregivers in a harsh way. John’s personality and behavior changed since he started having dementia symptoms. John has never been harsh to anybody nor used any bad languages to anybody. John treated the caregivers in such a behavior because he had anger and did not agree with the fact that he is in a such condition. John did not want to agree that he could not walk properly or do activities he used to do. In most of his therapist sessions, John’s children and wife would always praise him for trying and that gave John more courage for attending more of his therapy sessions. John’s children used modeling to improve their father’s communication by praising him after the therapy session finished for the day. Comment by Ed Schultze: Perfect Comment by Ed Schultze: Avoid absolutes; you likely will not be able to defend them. Instead consider qualifiers such as: “most of the time, may, could, likely, characteristically, expectedly’, see comment below Comment by Ed Schultze: Very good

John’s condition got better in some few months together with his behavior. At least John could sleep for three to four hours at night unlike the past days where he slept for only few minutes and could stay awake the whole night. John tried eating properly and would always write all his favorite things in a notebook the therapist gave it to him. Comment by Ed Schultze: Avoid absolutes; you likely will not be able to defend them. Instead consider qualifiers such as: “most of the time, may, could, likely, characteristically, expectedly’, see comment below

People with Alzheimer’s and other types of dementia tend to be at a high risk of falling. They are more than three times more likely to fracture their hip when they fall, which leads to surgery and immobility. The rate of death following a hip fracture for those with Alzheimer’s is also increased. Thus, fall prevention for people with dementia is critical (Heerama, E). One night, John was trying to get out of the bed by himself. As he was approaching his wheel, the hand slip and fell. John had fallen so bad because he fell on his right leg and hand whereby, he once had a fracture on the same right leg. John’s condition got worsen after the accident. John could not go out of the bed for several weeks. The pain medication he was given, made John drowsier. John was more frustrated and anxious. When John’s wife, Mary visited his laying husband on bed, John would always tell Mary that he wants to die and blamed her why she was keeping him alive. John saw himself as a burden to the wife and children. Mary was always frustrated whenever the husband spoke such words to her. After six months since John fell, his condition had been worsening as he had pain and other diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and prostate cancer which ended up his life. The traumatic experience Mary witnessed is seeing her husband not breathing as he was talking to him during his death. Mary was so confused because it was so sudden although his condition was worse. John died before few days to his birthday at the age of sixty-eight. Comment by Ed Schultze: Really good point good for you for including this Comment by Ed Schultze: Wheel chair ???

Mary’s new chapter

John’s death frustrated and made Mary more depressed. Among the reasons for Mary’s depression is witnessing her husband’s death. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); PTSD develops after people have experienced or witnessed something traumatic. The traumatic experience that triggers PTSD may be prompted by a variety of events, such as death of a spouse. Anxiety isn’t one of the five stages of grief, but many mental health professionals suggest that it should be. When a person suffers a loss, the effects can feel paralyzing. Grieving people often feel that they have lost their sense of safety and control in life, and they find themselves panicking or worrying excessively about what or whom else they could lose in the future. They also may have trouble sleeping or taking care of themselves, which can put them at higher risk for anxiety (Smith, K). Comment by Ed Schultze: How did you get into this

John has been a favorite partner and supporter in Mary’s life. Mary never knew to live a life without her husband. When John used to live in an assistant home living, Mary used to visit the husband very often sometimes even twice a day. Among serious mental health problems that cause sadness and loss of interest in activities in many people is depression. When people are depressed, it affects their thinking, behavior as well as emotions. As stated by Krisch. J, dealing with the death of a loved one may be one of the most universally significant emotional experiences. Among the emotional experiences Mary had was having a sad mood often, loss of interest in cooking which she enjoyed a lot, feeling guilt for everything. Mary also lacked enough sleep during the night, she would always complain of headaches especially during nights. Mary also experienced a borderline personality disorder which resulted her mood and behavior change. Mary had an appetite change whereby she could not eat properly. Mary also had control fallacies as she thought everything that happened to her husband was her fault. Mary would always blame herself for her husband’s death. Mary thought the best way he could make the husband alive is staying by his side and not sending him to an assistant home living. Mary also had anxiety symptoms whereby, she always had panic, fear, and uneasiness, Mary could not stay calm and still. She also complained of cold, sweaty, numb or tingling hands or feet. Comment by Ed Schultze: The list is getting bigger Where did this come from??

Mary’s children got concerned on their mother’s condition and it was hard seeing their mother in such condition since they just grieved their father. John’s children would often travel to Frederick MD so as to visit their mother and give her company and make her not feel lonely. As john’s children visited their mother, Mary would at least not feel as much anxious as she was when her children were not around. Mary’s children sent their mother to the hospital so as the doctor can offer them any medications for her mother’s illness. Among the things the doctor offered were attending some physical therapy sessions. Mary attended the therapy sessions twice a week. As Mary’s depression was associated with psychological stress, interpersonal problems and personality disorders, she attended the psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, or talk therapy, is a way to help people with a broad variety of mental illnesses and emotional difficulties. Psychotherapy can help eliminate or control troubling symptoms so a person can function better and can increase well-being and healing (Parekh, R). Mary’s children enabled their mother to get involved during the therapy sessions as they were also involved in the sessions. Mary always shared her personal feelings to the therapist and told the therapist that she was not ease since she caused the death of her husband. Also, she told the therapist that she could sometimes see her husband in the dream while she was asleep. Mary was so open to her therapist which managed her recovery from depression and anxiety become a short period of time. Mary always did all the assignment the therapist told her to do such as writing what they discussed and her favorite stuffs in life. Comment by Ed Schultze: Avoid absolutes; you likely will not be able to defend them. Instead consider qualifiers such as: “most of the time, may, could, likely, characteristically, expectedly’, see comment below

Mary’s condition improved within few months. Mary could start participating on her favorite activities like spending time in her store and cooking her favorite dishes. Mary participated more in the community activities such as volunteering in some of the facilities like the rescue mission for homeless people. Mary would spend most of her time helping providing food for the homeless as well as kitchen activities like cooking and washing dishes because she enjoyed a lot. Not only did Mary participate much in volunteering, she also participated in church activities. Mary taught Sunday school to the little children at her church and participated in most of her church activities like travelling to Israel so as she could learn more on the bible teachings.


For most part, patients with depression and anxiety need to have supportive family members and friends that would support them during such condition especially the dementia old people in the nursing homes and assistant living facilities. If Mary’s children were not supportive enough for their mother, then their mother’s condition would have gotten worse. Mary’s children participated in their mother’s illness from the beginning their father was ill until their mother’s recovery. The main medical treatment for depression is physical therapy. If a person identifies some symptoms of depression from a friend or family member, send the person to the hospital so as she /he could seek for an earlier therapy session. Late treatment for depression, can cause more illness to the patient. It is believed that it is difficult to identify an adult with depression and anxiety than the young people due to their experiences of everyday life difficulties. Most people should also know what to provide for people with depression and how to communicate with such people like sharing on the best events they ever experienced together. Comment by Ed Schultze: You are very correct. Support makes so much difference. However, it can be extremely hard for caretakers to go through this and to be supportive. The caretakers also need support. Comment by Ed Schultze: Not really the main treatment may be psychiatric assessment and treatment


Bell E. Treatment for PTSD. Anxiety and Depression Association with America. ttps://

Cohut, M. (2019). Newsletter. Medical News Today. Can genetic variants predict depression risk in young people?

Croft, H. (2016). Healthy place, Relationship Between Depression and Anxiety.

Goldberg, J. (2017). WebMD, Psychotic Depression.

Han, S. (2019). Medical News Today, what are the early signs of dementia?

Heerema, E. (2019). Very Well Health, Common Causes of Falls in People With Dementia.

Krisch, J, A. (2019). Fatherly, HEALTH & SCIENCE. The Death of a Parent Affects Even Grown Children Psychologically and Physically.

Lieber, A. (2018). Pychom, Major Depression (Unipolar Depression)

Mayo Clinic. (2015). Mental illness, Patient Care & Health Information Diseases & Conditions.

Mayo Clinic Staff. March 2019. Cognitive behavioral therapy, Mayo clinic.

Mental Health America. The State of Mental Health in America,

National Health. Institute. (2017). what Is Alzheimer’s disease? BASICS OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE AND DEMENTIA.

National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Depression: What You Need to Know.

Neuro up. Areas of Intervention  /   Cognitive Functions.

Parekh, R. (2019). American Psychiatric Association, What is Psychotherapy?

Smith, K. Psycom. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), What is GAD? Why do I have it? How do I cope?

Thorpe Jr. (2016). Bustle, How To Explain Anxiety To People Who Don’t Understand.

depression and anxiety. You really did a nice job. I also notice definite improvement in the writing (keep working on it ) . I hope you are proud of this paper.

Correlational research, which you explored in this week’s Discussion, is useful in identifying relations between two variables, but does not make assumptions regarding cause and effect among the variables because researchers did not control for outside factors. To demonstrate possible causal relations among variables, researchers will need to manipulate variables in an experimental research design.

The variable that the researcher manipulates in an experimental research design is termed the independent variable. As a researcher, one important determination you need to make is the number of independent variables involved in the study. If you manipulate one independent variable, the study would be termed a one-way experimental design.

Researchers also need to determine dependent variables. In an experimental design, the dependent variable is the measure of the effect of the independent variable. If the dependent measure reveals an effect made by an independent variable, a researcher may be able to determine cause.

Consider a study that hypothesizes that 8-year-olds who play educational computer games score higher on intelligence tests than those who do not play educational computer games. Consider how many aspects you would need to address if you were conducting the study. First, you would need to understand that the independent variable is the game-playing, whereas the dependent variable is the scores on the intelligence test.

Next, you would need to determine the levels of the independent variable. In this scenario, suppose there are three levels of play: no play, some play (4 hours a week), and frequent play (8 or more hours a week).

Additionally, you would need to determine whether the study is a between-participants design or a within-participants design (also known as a repeated-measures design). A between-participants design uses different groups for each level. A within-participants design uses the same group, and that one group repeats the experiment for each level.

In this Assignment you apply key concepts related to experimental design to a research study and analyze and interpret the outcome.

To prepare:

  • Read the assigned pages from Chapter 10 in your course text.
  • Read the following study scenario:Researchers are interested in the effectiveness of a particular treatment for insomnia. They contact 50 insomnia sufferers who responded to a newspaper advertisement to participate in the study. Each participant is given a pill with instructions to take it before going to sleep that night. The pill actually contains milk powder (a placebo). The participants are randomly assigned to receive one of two sets of instructions about the pill. One half of the participants are told that the pill will make them feel “sleepy,” and the other half are told that the pill will make them feel “awake and alert.” The next day the participants return to the lab and are asked to indicate how long it took them to fall asleep after taking the pill. The individuals who were told that the pill would make them feel sleepy reported that they fell asleep faster than the participants who were told the pill would make them feel alert.
    Think about the concepts you read about this week about one-way experimental designs and analysis of variance (ANOVA), and how they apply to the above study.

The Assignment (1–2 pages):

With the study scenario in mind, complete the following:

  1. Identify the independent variable and dependent variable. Indicate the number of levels in the independent variable and describe each level.
  2. Indicate whether the research used a between-participants or a within-participants research design and how you determined this to be the case.
  3. Presume a third condition was added to the study. In this condition, the participants are not given any information about the effects of the (placebo) pill. Next, suppose an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted. Briefly interpret, in your own words, what it would mean if the F was significant as applied to this study.

Note: Support the responses within your Assignment with evidence from the assigned Learning Resources. Provide a reference list for resources you used for this Assignment.

By Day 7

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